BIO 370 E3 C8 GOLGI

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BIO 370 E3 C8 GOLGI
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2012-05-01 20:58:51
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BIO 370 E3 C8 GOLGI
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BIO 370 E3 C8 CELL GOLGI GSU 2012
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  1. stacks of flattened cisternae lacking ribosomes
    GOLGI
  2. The ______ face of the Golgi faces the ER
    The _______ face is on the opposite end of the stack
    • cis...IN
    • trans...OUT
  3. Golgi networks are processing and sorting stations where proteins are....NAME 2 FUNCTIONS
    Modified with various molecular additions or subtractions.

    Segregated and then shipped in different directions using signals receptors and cytoskeletal elements.
  4. THE CIS SIDE FACES WHAT?
    THE RER
  5. NAME THE 5 LEVELS OF THE GLOGI
  6. Sorts proteins for the ER or the next Golgi station
    • Cis Golgi network (CGN)
    • THE LOWER REGION
  7. Sorts proteins to various cellular destinations
    • Trans Golgi network (TGN)
    • THE UPPER REGION
  8. reduced osmium tetroxide...WHERE CAN IT BE FOUND?
    reduced osmium tetroxide in cis cisternae
  9. enzyme mannosidase II IS WHERE IN THE GC?
    medial section
  10. enzyme nucleoside diphosphatase WHERE IN THE GC?
    trans region only
  11. Oligosaccharides attach to ________ & ______ in the Golgi
    glycoproteins and glycolipids
  12. Synthesis of complex _________ takes place in the Golgi
    polysaccharides
  13. Glycosylation in the Golgi Complex. HOW MANY STEP AND HOW LONG AT EACH REGION?
  14. Vesicular transport within the Golgi complex: Two views..NAME THEM
    • Vesicular Transport. OUTSIDE EDGES BOTH UP & DOWN.anterograde movement of vesicles cis to trans.
    • Rothman Stanford, 1983.

    Cisternal Maturation. THRU CNTR OUT AND OUTSIDE TOWARDS CIS. 1990s
  15. WHAT IS THE Cisternal Maturation model
    A more recent version of an older model holds that cisternae formed on the cis face are transient and physically move to the trans face; 1990s data shows retrograde trans to cis movement of vesicles i.e. backwards.
  16. WHAT IS THE Vesicular Transport model?
    Material moves through permanent Golgi stacks in the vesicles; James Rothman, et al. (Stanford, 1983) showed anterograde movement of vesicles cis to trans
  17. DEFINE vesicular (retrograde) and cisteral (anterograde) movement. WHAT MODEL DOES IT COENSIDE WITH?
    • vesicular (retrograde)...BACKWARDS
    • cisteral (anterograde)...FORWARDS
    • cisternal maturation model.
  18. Materials carried between membrane compartments by membrane-bound vesicles. SIZE
    typically 50 - 75 nm dia
  19. T OR F ?
    Most budding vesicles covered on cytosolic surface by fuzzy, electron-dense layer.
    TRUE. REMEBER THAT PROTEINS ARE PART OF THE MIX
  20. Protein coats have at least two distinct functions, NAME THEM.
    • They act as a mechanical device that causes the membrane to curve & form a budding vesicle.
    • They provide a mechanism for selecting components (& thus soluble cargo) to be carried by vesicle
  21. COPI & COPII, WHAT THE HELL ARE THEY AND WHAT DO THEY DO?
    • PROTEIN COATS.
    • COP II GOES FROM RER TO GC
    • COP I FROM GC TO RER
  22. WHICH WAY DOES THE COP1 & COPII TRAVEL?
  23. DOES THE COPI AND COPII LEAVE THE GC?
    • NO.
    • CLATHRIN TAKES IT FROM THE TRANS FACE OF THE GC.
  24. Components selected for transport can include WHAT? NAME 3
    secretory, lysosomal, & membrane proteins.
  25. Binding of SarI-GTP to ER membrane initiates assembly...OF WHAT?
    • COPII subunits to form vesicle coat.
  26. COPII subunits to form vesicle coat, WHEN THIS IS OCCURING THE CARGO PROTEINS OF ER LUMEN BIND TO LUMINAL ENDS OF ______ CARGO RECEPTORS.
    • TRANSMEMBRANE.
  27. WHAT 2 UNITS BIND TO THE ER MEMBRANE INITIATES THE ASSEMBLY OF COPII SUBUNITS THAT FORM A VESICLE COAT?
    • Binding of SarI-GTP
  28. ___________ & its derivatives __________ can recruit particular proteins to specific sites on membrane surfaces during membrane trafficking
    Phosphatidylinositol & (phosphoinositides)
  29. the protein dynamin is recruited to clathrin-coated vesicles, in part, by the presence OF WHAT? WHAT IS THIS A GOOD EXAMPLE OF?
    the presence of the phospholipid PI(4,5)P2 in the membrane at budding sites.

    THIS IS A GOOD EXAMPLE OF MEMBRANE BEING USED FOR TRAFFICKING & CONCENTRATIONS.

    A lipid species like PI(4,5)P2 can have a dynamic regulatory role because it can be rapidly formed & destroyed by enzymes that are localized at particular places & times within the cell.
  30. protein dynamin...WHAT DO YOU THINK OF?
    SHAPE CHANGE.
  31. Distinct classes of coated vesicles...NAME 3
    COPII, COPI, and Clatherin
  32. DEFINE COPII-coated vesicles
    Move materials forward from ER to ERGIC (intermediate compartment between ER & Golgi) & Golgi complex; COP is acronym for coat proteins
  33. COP is acronym for _____ ______.
    coat proteins
  34. COPI IS ASSOCIATED WITH WHAT MOVEMENT?
    • RETOGRADE. ON THE SIDE.
    • ERGIC & Golgi stack backward toward ER

    Also thought to transport materials through Golgi from TRANS to CIS face
  35. endocytic pathway
    ENZYME PATHWAY THAT BREAK DOWN THINGS.
  36. Resident proteins of ER have _____________used to retrieve them from Golgi if accidentally sent
    C terminous aa sequences
  37. Resident proteins of ER have C terminous aa sequences used to retrieve them from Golgi if accidentally sent..NAME 2
    • Soluble ER proteins have KDEL retrieval signal.
    • KDEL receptors in cis Golgi compartment “lys-asp-glu-leu”

    ER membrane proteins have KKXX signal “lys-lys-x-x” Bind to proteins of COPI-coat
  38. KDEL receptors in Golgi compartment.
    WHAT REGION OF THE GOLGI?
    WHAT IS THE AA SEQUENCE?
    • CIS REGION
    • lys-asp-glu-leu
  39. KDEL & KKXX RETRIEVAL SIGNALS.
    WHICH ONE IS SOLUBILE?
    WHICH ONE IS ASSOCIATE WITH MEMEBRANES & COPI COATS?
    KDEL...SOULBILE

    KKXX..MEMBRANE PROTEINS. BINDS TO PROTEINS OF COPI COAT.
  40. IF KDEL OR KKXX IS ACTIVACTED, WHERE DOES IT GO?
    BACK TO THE ER.
  41. DEFINE MOIETY
    GROUP OF SUGARS
  42. DEFINE Clathrin-coated vesicles
    • Move materials from TGN to endosomes, lysosomes & plant vacuoles
    • Also move materials from plasma membrane to cytoplasmic compartments along endocytic pathway
    • Also implicated in trafficking from endosomes & lysosomes
  43. WHEN DEALING WITH LYSOSOME DESTINATIONS, WHAT IS THE MAIN RECEPTOR?
    mannose-6-P
  44. Targeting lysosomal enzymes to lysosomes.. NAME THE 6 STEPS
    • 1.Phosphorylation of mannose in Golgi.
    • 2. Moved to clatherin-coated vesicle in TGN.
    • 3. Interact with cytosolic adapters in vesicle.
    • 4. Mannose-6-P receptors separate from enzymes, Enzymes move to endosome and then to lysosome.
    • 5. Return to Golgi.
    • 6. Secreted extracellular lysosomal enzymes can be captured and retrieved and directed to endosome.
  45. WHERE DOES THE PHOSPHORYLATION OF LYSOSOMAL ENZYMES OCCUR IN THE GC?
    • CIS GOLGI CISTERNA
  46. WHERE DOES THE FORMATION OF THE CLATHERIN COATED VESICLES OCCUR?
    • TGN.
    • TRANS GOLGI NETWORK
  47. SO HOW DOES A TRANSPORT VESICLE KNOW WHERE TO GO AND BIND TO?
    • a) Rab proteins on vesicle target membrane recruit tethering proteins for initial contact with target membrane.
    • b) Docking and fusion involve various SNARE proteins where helixes interact to allow fusion.
  48. WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF "SNAREs"
    • membrane fusion and exocytosis.
  49. NAME 3 TYPES OF SNAREs
    • Syntaxin (red)synaptobrevin (blue)SNAP-25 (green)
  50. DEFINE Lysosomes
    • contain acid hydrolases that can digest every kind of biological molecule.
    • Internal proton concentration is kept high by H+-ATPases
  51. WHAT IS THE INTERNAL PROTON CONCENTRATION IN LYSOSOMES?
    Internal proton concentration is kept high by H+-ATPases. PROTON PUMPS
  52. HOW DOES A LYSOSOME PROTECT ITSELF FROM SELF DIGESTION?
    • Glycosilated(SUGAR COATED) proteins,
    • Igp-A and Igp-B, may protect the lysosome from self digestion
  53. WHAT ENZYME IS USED TO ID LYSOSOMES?
    acid phosphatase.
  54. THE LYSOSOMAL ENZYME B-GALACTOSIDASE BREAKS DOWN WHAT SUBSTRATE?
    KERATAN SULFATE
  55. WHAT LYSOSOMAL ENZYME BREAK DOWN DNA/RNA?
    • RNA...ACID RIBONUCLEASE
    • DNA...ACID DEOXYRIBONUCLEASE
  56. Lysosomes are involved in two major cell functions..NAME THEM
    • Phagocytosis
    • Autophagy
  57. DEFINE lipofuscin granules
    IT'S A GRANULE THAT THE LYSOSOME CANT BRAEK DOWN. LIKE WHEN IT TRIES TO AUTOPHAGE A MITOCHONDRIA AND CANT BREAK IT DOWN COMPLETELY.
  58. WHERE DOES THE FORMATION OF THE AUTOPHAGIC VACUOLE OCCUR?
    • ER
  59. Disorders from Lysosomal Defects...NAME 3
    • lysosomal uptake of indigestible fibers.
    • (Silicosis and asbestosis)

    Lysosomal storage disorders result from the absence of specific lysosomal enzymes.

    THE DAMN THING BREAKS OPEN & FUCKS UP THE CELL & THE SURROUNDINGS
  60. TAY-SACKS IS CAUSED BY WHAT?
    lack of hydrolytic enzyme for ganglioside GM2 & deficiency of the enzyme N-hexosaminidase A

    leads to accumulation of undigested glycolipids and mental retardation, no degradation of gangliosides in the brain.
  61. NAME 2 WAYS THAT YOU CAN GET RIDE OF A PROTEIN IN A CELL.
    LYSOSOMES & PROTEASOMES
  62. Proteasome function
    • Degrade individual cellular proteins that are no longer needed.
    • Proteins have characteristic longevity, correlated to its function.
  63. LYSOSOMES IN ANIMAL ARE LIKE ____ IN PLANTS.
    VACULOES
  64. A TONOPLAST HAS 3 FUNCTIONS
    • TRANSPORT INTO VACULE
    • TURGER PRESSURE
    • LYSOSOMAL
  65. NAME THE OPSONINS THAT MAY STIMULATE PHAGOCYTOSIS.
    IgG
  66. DEFINE opsonins
    MAKES SOMETHING THE CELL WOULD CONSUME MORE PALETABLE TO EAT.
  67. ANOTHER NAME OF CELLULAR UPTAKE IS...
    Phagocytosis is the cellular uptake of particulates.
  68. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PHAGOCYTOSIS & ENDOCYTOSIS?
    • PHAGO: Particles and macromolecules.
    • ENDO: material dissolved or suspended in fluid
  69. DEFIINE Endocytosis
    the cellular uptake of material dissolved or suspended in fluid
  70. 2 TYPE OF ENDOCYTOSIS ARE.....
    Bulk phase endocytosis does not require surface membrane recognition.

    Receptor mediated endocytosis (RME) follows binding of substance to membrane receptors
  71. Involves clatherin coat and complete vesicle formation and removal from the plasma membrane...WHAT PROCESS IS THIS?
    Endocytosis
  72. T OR F?
    CLATHERIN IS INVOLVED IN BOTH ENDOCYTOSIS & ENDOCYTOSIS
    TRUE
  73. DEFINE Ligand bound receptors
    Collect in specialized regions of the membrane forming coated pits. EXTERIOR (OUTSIDE) OF CELL.
  74. DEFINE CLATHERIN STRUCTURES
    • Contains three chains that form a triskelion
    • Can change from a flat sheet to a cage like scaffold surrounding the vesicle.
    • The formation of clatherin-coated endocytic vesicle requires an additional GTP-binding protein
    • Dynamin
  75. WHAT HOLD A PLASMA MEMBRANE COMPOSED OF CLATHRIN TOGTHER?
    • ADAPTOR PROTEIN (AP2) COMPLEX
  76. THE 3 ENDS OR "HOOT" OF A TRISKELION , WHAT TERMINAL END OF THE CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAIN IS IT?
    • N-TERMINAL
  77. WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF DYNAMIN IN REGURDS TO CLATHRIN PLASMA MEMBRANE PROCESS?
  78. DEFINE THE ENDOCYTIC PATHWAY
    • 2 PARTS EARLY AND LATE ENDOSOME!
  79. ENDOCYTIC PATHWAY...NAME THE PHASE AND WHAT HAPPENS IN EACH.
    early and late endosomes.

    • Materials in early endosomes are sorted and integral membrane proteins are shipped back to the membrane.
    • Molecules that reach the late endosomes are moved to lysosomes,which include other dissolved materials and bound ligands.
  80. ______ is associated with lowering cholesterol levels.GOOD.

    _______are associated with high blood cholesterol. Formation of atherosclerosis. BAD.
    • HDL...GOOD
    • LDL... BAD
  81. IN CELLULAR UPTAKE, WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE ENDOSOMES?
    THEY ARE THE CONTAINERS FOR WHAT JUST CAME INTO THE CELL. THEY DONT BREAK DOWN, THATS THE LYSOMES FUNCTION.
  82. Cholesterol is transported by the blood in ________complexes
    lipoprotein
  83. LDLs are taken up by _______ and delivered to lysosomesReleases the cholesterol for use by cells
    RECIEPTOR MEDIATED ENDOCYTOSIS (RME)
  84. HDLs transport _______
    From tissue to the liver.
    Elimination process
    cholesterol
  85. OF THE TWO TYPES OF CHOLESTEROL, WITH ONE IS INVOLED WITH RME?
    • LDL
    • LDLs are taken up by RME and delivered to lysosomes.
    • Releases the cholesterol for use by cells
  86. T OR F?
    HORMONES ARE MADE BY LDL IN THE CELL.
    TRUE
  87. T OR F?
    HDL TRANSPORT CHOLESTEROL THRU BODY REGIONS
    TRUE
  88. Formation of atherosclerosis...HIGH LEVELS OR HDL OR LDL?
    LDL
  89. WHAT THE HELL IS ESTERIFIED CHOLESTEROL?
    • CHOLESTEROL PACKAGED FOR TRANSPORT
  90. atherosclerosis plaque formation....WHAT ARE THE 4 STEPS?
  91. WHERE IN THE FUCK DID YOU HEAR THE TERM"FOAM CELL"
    atherosclerosis plaque formation..FORMS IN THE ENDOTHELIAL INJURY SITE WHERE LDL FORM A CLOT.
  92. WHEN A PROTEIN IS MADE IN THE CYTOSOL, HOW IN THE HELL ODES IT GET INTO THE MITOCHONDRIA?
    • CHAPERONES BRING IT TO THE OUTER MEMBRANE, THEY GET TRANSPORTED THRU THE TOM/TIM COMPLEXES INTO THE MITOCHONDRIA MATRIX.
    • POS CHARGE OF PROTEIN FIRST THRU PORES
  93. NAME TWO CHAPERONE THAT ARE INVOLED IN TRANSPORTING PROTEINS TO THE MITOCHONDRIA MADE IN THE CYTOSOL.
    • CYTOSOLIC CHAPERONE Hsp70
    • MITOCHONDRIA CHAPERONE: mtHsp70
  94. HOW MANY STEPS ARE THEIR TO TRANSPORT A PROTEIN PRODUCED IN THE CYTOSOL THAT NEEDS TO GOTO THE MITOCHONDRIA?
    • FIVE

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