Vitamin & Mineral Chemical Names
Home > Flashcards > Print Preview
The flashcards below were created by user
on FreezingBlue Flashcards
. What would you like to do?
a colorless, crystalline, water-soluble B complex vitamin that acts as a coenzyme in fatty acid production and in the oxidation of fatty acids and carbohydrates. It also aids in the use of protein, folic acid, pantothenic acid, and vitamin B12. Rich sources are egg yolk, beef liver, kidney, unpolished rice, brewer's yeast, peanuts, cauliflower, and mushrooms. Formerly called vitamin H. See also avidin.
A soft, nonmetallic element found in compounds that are used in treating cancer and as astringents and antiseptics. Atomic number 5.
an essential mineral that is associated with glucose tolerance, high cholesterol, blocked arteries, glaucoma, obesity, diabetes, and hypoglycemia. Not for use by chil-dren or pregnant or nursing women. Also called chromium picolinate, chromium polynicotinate, or chromium chloride.
n an enzyme along the electron transport chain. Scientific name: 2,3 dimethoxy-5 methyl-6-decaprenyl benzoquinone; uses: heart disease—including ischemic heart disease, dysrhythmias, congestive heart failure, hypertension, angina pectoris, mitral valve prolapse—diabetes, infertility, Bell's palsy, periodontal disease; precautions: pregnancy, lactation, children; can cause nausea, diarrhea, epigastric pain. Also called Co-Q10, mitoquinone, ubidecarenone, and ubiquinone.
folate: Folic acid is a water-soluable vitamin belonging to the B-complex group of vitamins. These vitamins help the body break down complex carbohydrates into simple sugars to be used for energy. Excess B vitamins are excreted from the body rather than stored for later use. This is why sufficient daily intake of folic acid is necessary.
A molecule that acts as a co-enzyme in cellular oxidation-reduction reactions.
Homocysteine is a naturally occurring amino acid found in blood plasma. High levels of homocysteine in the blood are believed to increase the chance of heart disease, stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and osteoporosis.
- A hard metallic element that is an essential trace element in plant and animal nutrition. Atomic number 42.
- Molybdenum is poisonous if ingested in large quantities. Molybdenum is used as an additive in certain steels.
- Vitamin B3
- a white, crystalline, water-soluble vitamin of the B complex, usually occurring in various plant and animal tissues as nicotinamide. It functions as a coenzyme necessary for the breakdown and use of all major nutrients and is essential for a healthy skin, normal functioning of the GI tract, maintenance of the nervous system, and synthesis of the sex hormones. It may be used therapeutically to help reduce high blood cholesterol levels. Rich dietary sources of both niacin and its precursor tryptophan are meats, poultry, fish, liver, kidney, eggs, nuts, peanut butter, brewer's yeast, and wheat germ.
- Vitamin B5
- An oily acid that is widely found in plant and animal tissues, is a component of CoA and a part of the vitamin B2 complex, and functions as a growth factor.
- Vitamin B6
- a water-soluble white crystalline vitamin that is part of the B complex. It is derived from pyridine and converted in the body to pyridoxal and pyridoxamine for synthesis. It functions as a coenzyme essential for the synthesis and breakdown of amino acids, the conversion of tryptophan to niacin, the breakdown of glycogen to glucose 1-phosphate, the production of antibodies, the formation of heme in hemoglobin, the formation of hormones important in brain function, the proper absorption of vitamin B12, the production of hydrochloric acid and magnesium, and the maintenance of the balance of sodium and potassium, which regulates body fluids and the functioning of the nervous and musculoskeletal systems. Rich dietary sources are meats, especially organ meats; whole-grain cereals; soybeans; peanuts; wheat germ; and brewer's yeast.
- Vitamin B2
- a yellow, crystalline, water-soluble pigment, one of the heat-stable components of the B vitamin complex. It combines with specific flavoproteins and functions as a coenzyme in the oxidative processes of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Small amounts of riboflavin are found in the liver and kidneys, but it is not stored to any great degree in the body and must be supplied regularly in the diet. Common sources are organ meats, milk, cheese, eggs, green leafy vegetables, meat, whole grains, and legumes. Deficiency of riboflavin is rare and produces cheilosis; local inflammation; desquamation; encrustation; glossitis; photophobia; corneal opacities; proliferation of corneal vessels; seborrheic dermatitis about the nose, mouth, forehead, ears, and scrotum; trembling; sluggishness; dizziness; edema; inability to urinate; and vaginal itching. Also called vitamin B2.
- Viatamin A
- A deficiency of vitamin A (also called retinol) leads to interference with growth, atrophy of epithelial tissues resulting in keratomalacia, corneal ulcerations, xerophthalmia with Bitot's spots, reduced resistance to infection of mucous membranes, and abnormal production and regeneration of rhodopsin resulting in night blindness. Management includes a balanced diet and may require large vitamin A supplement with a topical antibiotic to prevent secondary infections.
- Vitamin B1
- an unlikely event in food animals with two exceptions: the secondary deficiency caused in horses and pigs by thiaminase in bracken and the primary deficiency in horses fed a diet almost entirely of turnips. In companion animals, the deficiency is much more common. Dogs, and particularly cats, fed diets in which thiamin has been destroyed, usually by excessive heat in processing but also by the inclusion of raw fish of certain marine species or sulfur dioxide as a food preservative, will develop signs of deficiency which include ataxia, mydriasis and convulsions.
- Vitamin K
- a fat-soluble vitamin of the vitamin K group; used to promote prothrombin formation in hypoprothrombinemia of various causes, administered orally or parenterally.
What would you like to do?
Home > Flashcards > Print Preview