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In DNA replication, eukaryotic DNA is ____and prokayotic DNA is _____.
- eukaryotic= linear
- prokaryotic= circular
Eukaryotes have how many places or origin?
How many do prokaryotes have?
DNA Replication : describe.
- -semi conservative replication
- -antiparallel strands
What is the "packman" enzyme?
-What does it do?
packman enzyme= does the job of replication
-it does the job of replication
What 4 things do you need for DNA replication to occur?
- 1. AT/CG
Both prokaryotes and eukaryotic DNA replication are what?
DNA replication occurs from what end to what end?
5 prime to 3 prime ALWAYS!
DNA replication is sometimes called?
Name the 2 strands.
lagging and leading strands
Why is the lagging strand missing pieces?
What are these pieces called?
some pieces don't get done.
What is the molecule that joins together the okazaki fragments?
Our DNA is coupled with proteins called?
Do prokaryotes have histones?
No! they are naked
Prokaryotes have these 3 & describe each.
- 1. DNA poly 1= for repair & exocision
- 2. DNA poly 2= we dont know???
- 3.DNA poly 3= polymerization
Eukaryotes have these 3 and describe each.
- 1.Alpha DNA poly= equal to prokaryote DNA poly 3, polymerization
- 2. Beta DNA poly= equal to prokaryote DNA poly 1, for repair & excision
- 3. gamma DNA poly= located in mitochondria
In replication we have?
Initiation, elongation, termination.
What are the 4 things that make up a replisome?
- 1. RNA primer
- 2. DNA dependent RNA polymerase
- 3. DNA ligase
- 4.poly 1
What is fidelity?
The rate of error.
--high fidelity is good!!!
What does exonuclease activity do?
comes along and makes sure everything is paired right
Describe exonuclease activity and prokaryotes & eukaryotes?
- prokaryotes= all contain exonuclease activity
- eukaryotes= we have separate enzymes that do exonuclease activity
4 things of DNA Recombination.
nicking, invasion, ligation, migration
What do you eventually form when doing a recombination?
a HOLIDAY JUNCTION
What are transporsons?
- -The jumping gene.
- -Can jump from one chromosome to another one.
- -Can jump from one animal's chromosome to another.
First step in making a protein is?
Do we need a primer for transcription?
What's another name for DNA dependent RNA polymerase?
RNA Poly 2
Neither ____ or in ______ change the template, when making a protein.
replication & transcription
In transcription what is in front of the pacman?
the TATA box
What makes up the TATA box?
TAF & TBP
What is the purpose of transcription?
to make mRNA
What are the 2 types of termination?
- 1. rho dependent
- 2. rho interdependent
What is GTF?
general transcription factors
***they are ENHANCERS & SILENCERS
Orientation of the enhancer?
DOES NOT AFFECT!!!
What is the point where the beginning of transcription starts?
the promotor region
What is topoisomerase?
It makes sure the DNA & RNA don't get wrapped together in a weird way.
Trans acting factors are?
-What is the acting element?
-not actually in DNA
-C is the acting element
what are snRPs?
enzymes that come together to form the "splicosome"
What does the splicosome do?
cut out parts of mRNA we dont need which are= introns
**parts of mRNA we DO NEED= extrons
For RNA polymerase:
- I= rRNA
- II= make the mRNA
- III= tRNA
Where does translation occur?
The ribosome is made up of?
Size of the eukaryotic ribosome?
80, 60, 40
Size of the prokaryotic ribosome?