Biochemistry

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blakers98
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151584
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Biochemistry
Updated:
2012-05-01 23:32:04
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Biochem new material
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Biochem new material
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  1. In DNA replication, eukaryotic DNA is ____and prokayotic DNA is _____.
    • eukaryotic= linear
    • prokaryotic= circular
  2. Eukaryotes have how many places or origin?

    How many do prokaryotes have?
    eukaryotes= many

    prokaryotes= 1
  3. DNA Replication : describe.
    • -semi conservative replication
    • -antiparallel strands
  4. What is the "packman" enzyme?

    -What does it do?
    packman enzyme= does the job of replication

    -it does the job of replication
  5. What 4 things do you need for DNA replication to occur?
    • 1. AT/CG
    • 2.magnesium
    • 3.ATP
    • 4.template
  6. Both prokaryotes and eukaryotic DNA replication are what?
    bidirectional
  7. DNA replication occurs from what end to what end?
    5 prime to 3 prime ALWAYS!
  8. DNA replication is sometimes called?
    "semi-discontinuous"
  9. Name the 2 strands.
    lagging and leading strands
  10. Why is the lagging strand missing pieces?

    What are these pieces called?
    some pieces don't get done.


    Okazaki fragments
  11. What is the molecule that joins together the okazaki fragments?
    DNA ligase
  12. Our DNA is coupled with proteins called?
    histones
  13. Do prokaryotes have histones?
    No! they are naked
  14. Prokaryotes have these 3 & describe each.
    • 1. DNA poly 1= for repair & exocision
    • 2. DNA poly 2= we dont know???
    • 3.DNA poly 3= polymerization
  15. Eukaryotes have these 3 and describe each.
    • 1.Alpha DNA poly= equal to prokaryote DNA poly 3, polymerization
    • 2. Beta DNA poly= equal to prokaryote DNA poly 1, for repair & excision
    • 3. gamma DNA poly= located in mitochondria
  16. In replication we have?
    Initiation, elongation, termination.
  17. What are the 4 things that make up a replisome?
    • 1. RNA primer
    • 2. DNA dependent RNA polymerase
    • 3. DNA ligase
    • 4.poly 1
  18. What is fidelity?
    The rate of error.

    --high fidelity is good!!!
  19. What does exonuclease activity do?
    comes along and makes sure everything is paired right
  20. Describe exonuclease activity and prokaryotes & eukaryotes?
    • prokaryotes= all contain exonuclease activity
    • eukaryotes= we have separate enzymes that do exonuclease activity
  21. 4 things of DNA Recombination.
    nicking, invasion, ligation, migration
  22. What do you eventually form when doing a recombination?
    a HOLIDAY JUNCTION
  23. What are transporsons?
    • -The jumping gene.
    • -Can jump from one chromosome to another one.
    • -Can jump from one animal's chromosome to another.
  24. First step in making a protein is?
    transcription
  25. Do we need a primer for transcription?
    NO!!!
  26. What's another name for DNA dependent RNA polymerase?
    RNA Poly 2
  27. Neither ____ or in ______ change the template, when making a protein.
    replication & transcription
  28. In transcription what is in front of the pacman?
    the TATA box
  29. What makes up the TATA box?
    TAF & TBP
  30. What is the purpose of transcription?
    to make mRNA
  31. What are the 2 types of termination?
    • 1. rho dependent
    • 2. rho interdependent
  32. What is GTF?
    general transcription factors

    ***they are ENHANCERS & SILENCERS
  33. Orientation of the enhancer?
    DOES NOT AFFECT!!!
  34. What is the point where the beginning of transcription starts?
    the promotor region
  35. What is topoisomerase?
    It makes sure the DNA & RNA don't get wrapped together in a weird way.
  36. Trans acting factors are?

    -What is the acting element?
    -not actually in DNA

    -C is the acting element
  37. what are snRPs?
    enzymes that come together to form the "splicosome"
  38. What does the splicosome do?
    cut out parts of mRNA we dont need which are= introns

    **parts of mRNA we DO NEED= extrons
  39. For RNA polymerase:

    I=
    II=
    III=
    • I= rRNA
    • II= make the mRNA
    • III= tRNA
  40. Where does translation occur?
    the ribosome
  41. The ribosome is made up of?
    • 40% protein
    • 60% rRNA
  42. Size of the eukaryotic ribosome?
    80, 60, 40
  43. Size of the prokaryotic ribosome?
    70,50,30

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