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Attenuation refers to...
Both absorption adn scatter that revents x-ray photons form reaching the IR
When do you start getting cataracts? When do you get it for sure?
- At 200 Rad ( 2.0 Gy ) people start to get it
- At 700 Rad ( 7.0 Gy ) you will DEFINITELY have it.
At what level of radiation does skin erythema happen?
1000 Rad ( 10 gy )
What is the most radiosensitve part of the digestive system? Whats the least?
- Samll intestines = the most radiosensitive
- Esophagus and rectum = least senstiive
How much exposure do you need to get to your CNS before it kills you?
5000 Rad ( 50 Gy ) can lead to death in a few hours.
What are some physical factors of radiosenstivity?
LET - rate at which energy is lsot from different type sof radiation whiel treavellign through matter.
RBE - Biological respons eot the quality of radiation.
- Dose rate:
- - Rate at which radiation is delivered.
What are some radiation sensitizers that enhance reponse to raidation?
- Halogenated Pyrimdines.
What is the most radiation sensitive in the cell cycle?
From least to most sensitive, list the cell cycle and their description
- S least sensitive
- - DNA replication
- G1 - less sensitive
- - First growth phase
- G2 - More sensitive
- - Second growth phase
- M - Most sensitive
- - Mitotic Phase
What are the levels of mitosis?
What happens in each stage?
- Prophase - Chrromatins form and spindle formation happens
- Metaphase - Chromosomes align at the center of the cell.
- Anaphase - Paired chromosome to poles of cell
- Telophase - Cell division occurs
What happens at prophase?
Chromatin forms and spindle formation occours at the ends of the cell.
What happens at metaphase?
Chromosomes align at the center
What happens at anaphase?
Paired chromosomes to poles of cell
What happens at telophase?
cell division occurs.
What happens at G1?
First Growth Phase
What happens at S in cell cycle?
What happens at G2 phase?
Second growth phase
What happens at M phase?
What are ionization of genetic and somatic cells referred to?
Anomaly, imperfections or lesions
What is a single break?
- Part of the arm is broken off that may result in:
- - Terminal
- - Inversion
- - Duplication
What is terminal chromosome damage?
Pure deletion of chromosome. When damaged, it has no attachement.
What is an inversion chromosome damage?
When chromesomes are inverted and reattach.
What is a duplication chromosome damage?
When they attach to a different chromosome.
What is the law of bergonie and tribondeau?
Immature cells are more sensitve than mature cells.