Radl 70 Limits for exposure to ionizing radiation
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which organizations are in charge of research and report?
which organizations are in charge of report and who make recommendations?
Which organizations are regulatory agencies?
- state and federal regulations
what is UNSCEAR?
united nations scientific committee on effects of atomic radiation
What does UNSCEAR do?
assesses and reports on exposures to humans and the environment to ionizing radiation from natural sources, man-made practices and accidental releases
when was UNSCEAR formed?
- the cold war was occuring at this time
what is UNSCEAR's findings based on?
epidemiological and research findings
what is BEIR?
national academy of sciences, national research council committee on the biological effects of ionizing radiation
who is the advisory group to BEIR?
what does BEIR do?
- reviews studies of effects of ionizing radiation on humans
- formulates reports
what is the ICRP?
international council on radiological protection
what does the ICRP do?
- makes recommendations to regulatory agencies based on reports from agencies such as BEIR and UNSCEAR
- considered to be the international authority on the safe use of sources of ionizing radiation
what is the NCRP?
national council on radiation protection and measurement
what does the NCRP do?
- a national organization that reviews recommendations from ICRP
- publishes reports
- makes recommendations
- uses most recommendations for national standards
what is the CRCPD?
conference of radiation control program directors
what does the CRCPD do?
- made up of individuals in state and local government who regulate and control the use of radiation sources
- developed the suggested state regulations for control of radiation
- established in 1968
how many states are under the regulatory agencies?
what is the NRC?
U.S. nuclear regulatory commision
what does the NRC do?
- has the power to enforce radiation protection standards
- does not inspect diagnostic imaging facilities
- oversees the nuclear energy industry
- publishes rules and regulations in title 10 of U.S. code of federal regulations
when was the NRC established?
what is california's regulatory agency?
- RHB- regulatory health branch
- DPH- department of public health= issues our licence
what is an agreement state?
- states that have had the authority to regulate transferred to them by the NRC
- must show that its in compliance with radiation safety including a person that takes xrays must have a minimum education
what is the EPA?
U.S. environmental protection agency
what does the EPA do?
- oversees general area of environmental monitoring
- deals with nuclear/radiation accidents in the environment
when was the EPA established?
1970 by the executive branch
what is the FDA?
U.S. food and drug administration
what does the FDA do?
- regulates and design and manufacture of electronic products by virtue of the radiation control health and safety act of 1968
- inspects diagnostic x-ray equipment
- establishes specific operational standards for x-ray equipment
what is OSHA?
U.S. occupational safety and health administration
what does OSHA do?
- a monitoring agency in places of employment, mostly in industry
- regulates occupational exposure to radiation
- oversees regulations for training programs
- oversees "right to know" regulations
around how many of the operators of radiologic equipment in the U.S. are not certified?
as many as half
what is a radiation safety officer and medical physicist?
- a designated person in an instution approved by the NRC and the state
- ensures that accepted guidlines for radiation protection are observed and practiced in that institution
- responsible for the formation of the institutional radiation safety program
what is an effective dose equivalent limiting system?
- current method for assessing radiation exposure and associated risk to radiation workers and the general public
- the threshold dose that results in a negligible risk of bodily injury or genetic damage
What is the radiation control health and safety act of 1968?
- enacted to protect the public from the hazards of unnecessary radiation exposure from electronic equipment
- includes microwave ovens, colr TV's and xray equipment
- falls under the jurisdiction of the FDA
what are the code of standards for xray equipment since aug 1, 1974?
- positive beam limitation - no longer have to be within standards
- minimal permanent filtration
- exposure reproducibility and linearity
- beam limitation devices for fluoroscopic spot films
- presence of beam-on indicators
- inclusion of manual backup timers for AEC should the phototimer fail
what occured with the consumer-patient radiation health and safety act of 1981?
- established minimal standards for accreditation of educational programs for persons who administer radiologic procedures
- no penalty exists for state non-compliance
what are non-stochastic effects?
- deterministic effects
- theres a threshold
- early effects- erythema, decreased WBC count, epilation
- early serious effects- hematopoietic syndrome, GI syndrome, cerebrovascular syndrome
- -acute radiation syndrome
what are some late non-stochastic effects?
- organ atrophy
- reduced fertility
- loss of parenchymal cells
what are stochastic effects?
- non-threshold, randomly occurring effects
- includes cancer, and genetic effects
What are some NCRP recommendations?
- TEDE- total effective dose equivalent
- TED- lifetime total effective dose
what is the TEDE (total effective dose equivalent)?
5 rem annualy (50 mSv)
what is the TED (lifetime total effective dose)?
should not exceed 10 mSv or 1 rem times person's age
what is radiation hormesis?
- a beneficial consequence of constant exposure to radiation exposure
- for ex: people in denver who are exposed to more radiation due to its high elevation are less likely to get cancer (theoretically)
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