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What are pale areas of in neuronal cytoplasm from dispersion of Nissle Substance (rER)?
Destruction of axon and myelin sheath d/t trauma or toxic injury=
Accumulation of glial cells around damaged neurons=
Softening/liquefaction of nervous tissue d/t necrosis of neurons and glial cells=
What is the total absence of the entire brain?
Failure of telencephalic cavity separation + Failure to close rostral neural tube (severe cases with central proboscis and cyclopia)?
Cerebral aplasia (prosencephalic hypoplasia)
Cerebral Aplasia is commone in: 2
Protrusion of fluid filled meninges (often associated with treatment of griseofulvin in the queen)?
Meningoceles are most commonly seen in: 2
What disorder, causes the brain surface to be smooth except for slight grooves in which the meningeal vessels are situated?
Lissencephaly is commonly in seen in:
Lhasa Apso dog
In what animals does hydraencephaly =>absence of the cerebral hemispheres and no ependymal lining? 2
- Calves - cerebellar hypoplasia
- Lambs - ewes Vx during pregnancy for bluetongue
What are the different types of hydrocephalus (common in brachycephalic breeds and aged animals)? 3
- Internal - fluid in ventricles
- External - fluid in sub-arachnoid space
- Communicating - fluid in ventricles and sub-arachnoid space
What congenital disorder develops as a consequence of a periductal gliosis of the aqueduct of sylvius?
What develops as a consequence of obstructed flow due to an accumulation of exudates (there is no malformation of cranium)?
Acquired hydracephalus can develop as a sequelae to what diseases? 5
- Bacterial meningitis
- Granulomatous meningitis
- Intracranial neoplasms
- Parasitic cysts
- Cholesteatoma in horses
Cysts in white matter of cerebal hemisphere=
In what animals do you see Porencepahly (cysts in white matter of the cerebral hemisphere)? 3
- Lambs - Border disease
- Calves - Infected in utero with BVDV
- Lambs - copper deficiency
In what animals is cerebellar hypoplasia most commonly observed? 3
Tubular Caviation of the spinal cord=
What is a tubular cavitation (syrinx) of the spinal cord which extends over several segments, common in weimaraner breed (normal posture is crouched)?
Syringomyelia (lesions not observed until 8th month of age)
What is a simple dilation of the central canal of the spinal cord?
What is absence of the dorsal portions of the vertebrae?
Spina Bifida is commonly seen in: 2
- Brachycephalic Breeds
- Manx Cats
What is the result of failure of dehiscence of the neural crest from the surface ectoderm?
Spina Bifida with meningomyelocele
In what diseases do you see intracytoplasmic neuronal vacuolization? 4
- Solanum spp. poisoning
- Aspergillus clavatus mycotoxicosis
What is primary demyelination? Secondary?
- Primary - disorder of myelin supporting cells (oligodendroglia and schwann cells)
- Secondary - Wallerian degeneration
What are the earliest lesions seen in Abiotrophy (premature programmed neuronal cell loss)?
Degeneration and loss of purkinje cells
Where can prion disease be detected in animals? 4
- OBIX/Brain stem (cow)
- Third eyelid of live sheep
- Tonsils or retropharyngeal lymph nodes of deer with CWD
What is bovine spongiform encephalopathy attributed to?
Consumption of rendered products from carcasses of scrapie-infected sheep or from cattle with previously unidentified TSE
What genetic disorder involves partially disassembled compounds accumulating within the lysosomes => neuronal and glial cell necrosis?
Lysosomal storage disease
Deficiency of the catabolic enzyme galactocerbroside-B-galactosidase and PAS-positive globoid type MO's are characteristic of?
Globoid cell leukodystrophy
Globoid Cell Leukodystrophy is common in: 2
What => foamy appearance of necrotic neuronal tissue?
Swollen microglia (phagocytosed debris and lipids)
What is leukomalacia?
- Leukomalacia - white matter
- Poliomalacia - grey matter
- Encephalomalacia - whole brain
- Myelomalacia - spinal cord
- Encephalomyelomalacia - brain and spinal cord
When is focal malacia usually seen?
Specific toxin or nutritional deficiency
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