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Atrophy of the endometrium can be a result of what? 4
- Inactive ovaries
- Pituitary problems
- Old age
What are some possible causes of endometrial hyperplasia in large animals? Small animals?
- Large - Estrogen, estrogenic pastures, injections, mycotoxin contaminated feed
- Small - Progesterone, ovarian tumors, injections, pseudopregnancy
What uterine disease includes a large uterus with a thickened wall, uterine lumen with mucoid, milky, blood stained fluid, pyometra is common secondary lesion and is most common in the bitch?
Cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH)/pyometra complex
What uterine disease is only in the bitch, involves longer than normal persistence of placental sites, and grossly appears as ring-like uterine enlargements?
Subinvolution of placental sites (SIPS)
What is an exaggerated prolongation of the luteal phase in dogs?
Pseudopregnancy (prolactin plays a role)
What changes are looked for in a endometrial biopsy of the mare? 3
- Artifactual changes
- Stages of estrous cycle
- Pathological changes
Where are lymphomas most often seen in the cow in order of how often? 4
- Lymph nodes
What is the predicted foaling rate for mares by uterine biopsy category?
- I - 80-90%
- II - 50-80%
- III - 10-50%
- IV - 10%
What uterine neoplasm is seen in the bitch?
What uterine neoplasms are seen in the cow? 2
What is a nonpatent connection of the Mullerian duct (cranial vagina) with urogenital sinus (caudal vagina)?
What is the result of persistent mesonephric ducts (Gartner's ducts)?
Formation of a single to multiple cysts or a tortuous tube in the lateral floor of the vagina b/t the cervix and urethral opening
What are some common infectious agents of the vagina and/or vulva? 4
- F. necrophorum
- E. coli
- Sreptococcus sp.
- Staphylococcus sp.
What is the infectious agent of Infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IPV)?
Bovine herpesvirus 1
What is the infectious agent behind equine coital exanthema, which causes painful papules, vesicles, pustules and ulcers on the external genitalia of mares and stallions?
Equine herpesvirus 3
How many chromosomes do cells of transmissable venereal tumor have?
59 chromosomes (compared to 78)
What is the infectious agent behind fibropapilloma of the vulva and penis in cattle?
Bovine paipillomavirus type 1
What animals have diffuse placenta? 2
What animals have a zonary placenta? 2
What animals have a cotyledonary placenta? 3
What animals have an epitheliochorial placenta? 5
What animals have an endotheliochorial placenta? 2
What animals have a hemochorial placenta? 6
- Guinea pigs
What disorder, seen in ruminants, involves reduced numbers of caruncles due to endometrial damage and enlargement of remaining caruncles?
What is accumulation of excess fluid in the amniotic sac (associated with facial malformation)?
What is accumulation of excess fluid in the allantoic sac (due to defective placenta in mid to last trimester)?
In what animals are amniotic plaques often observed?
When can death of fetus occur resulting in mummification?
After calcification of skeleton and development of skin
When does fetal maceration usually occur?
In the presence of lytic organisms (usually bacteria)
When does embryonic death (resorption) usually occur?
- Before 40 days in large animals
- Before 20 days in small animals
What is a disease of the neonate which presents clinically within one week of birth?
What is the result when a portion of the chorioallantois detaches from the endometrium?
"Red bag" separation
What happens when the placenta prematurely separates and turns brown and dehydrates?
"Brown spot" separation