PSYC 4

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jagibson
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15161
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PSYC 4
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2010-04-19 02:56:10
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Exam 1
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  1. In the _____-_____ model of classical conditioning, conditioning is viewed as a process of directly attaching a reflex response to a new stimulus.
    Stimulus-Response
  2. In the ____-____ model of classical conditioning, conditioning involves establishing a direct connection between an NS and a US.to
    stimulus-stimulus
  3. According to ____-____ theory, the CS acts as a substitute for the US.
    stimulus-substitution
  4. According to _____-_____ theory, the purpose of the CR is to prepare the organism for the occurrence of the US.
    preparatory-response theory
  5. According to ____-____ theory, the CR and UR should always be the same or at least highly similar. As it turns out, this is (true/false).
    • stimulus-substitution
    • false
  6. According to the ____-____ model of drug conditioning, a CS that has been associated with (a drug/primary response to a drug) will eventually come to elicit a c_____ reaction. Another way of looking at it is that the CS has become associated with the (a-process/b-process) and therefore eventually comes to elicit the (a-process/b-process).
    • compensatory-response
    • primary response to a drug
    • compensatory
    • a-process
    • b-process
  7. According to the compensatory-response model of drug addiction, symptoms of withdrawal are likely to be (stronger/weaker) in the presence of drug-related cues. This is because the drug-related cues tend to elicit (primary/compensatory) responses to the drug that are experienced as cravings.
    • stronger
    • compensatory
  8. A phobia is an extreme, irrational fear reaction to a particular event. From a classical conditioning perspective, it seems to represent a process of over-______.
    generalization
  9. Aversion therapy
    A form of behavior therapy that attempts to reduce the attractiveness of a desired event by associating it with an aversive stimulus.
  10. Compensatory-Response Model
    A model of conditioning in which a CS that has been repeatedly associated with the primary response (a-process) to a US will eventually come to elicit a compensatory response (b-process).
  11. Counterconditioning
    The procedure whereby a CS that elicits one type of response is associated with an event that elicits an incompatible response.
  12. Flooding therapy
    A behavioral treatment for phobias that involves prolonged exposure to a feared stimulus, thereby providing maximal opportunity for the conditioned fear response to be extinguished.
  13. Incubation
    The strengthening of a conditioned fear response as a result of brief exposures to the aversive CS.
  14. Overexpectation effect
    The decrease in the conditioned response that occurs when 2 seperately conditioned CSs are combined into a compound stimulus for further pairings with the US.
  15. preparatory-response theory
    A theory of classical conditioning that proposes that the purpose of the CR is to prepare the organism for the presentation of the US.
  16. Selective sensitization
    An increase in one's reactivity to a potentially fearful stimulus following exposure to an unrelated stressful event.
  17. S-R model
    As applied to classical conditioning, this model assumes that the NS becomes directly associated with the UR and therefore comes to elicit the same response as the UR.
  18. S-S model
    A model of classical conditioning that assumes that the NS becomes directly associated with the US, and therefore comes to elicit a response that is related to that US.
  19. stimulus-substitution theory
    A theory of classical conditioning that proposes that the CS acts as a substitute for the US.
  20. systematic desensitization
    A behavioral treatment for phobias that involves pairing relaxation with a succession of stimuli that elicit increasing levels of fear.
  21. Temperament
    An individual's base level of emotionality and reactivity to stimulation that, to a large extent, is genetically determined.

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