years to develop and starts at a young age
is a thickening or dardening of the arteries due to the buildup of fats, cholesterol, cellular waste products, calcium, and other substances in artery walls
arteriosclerosis arteries harden and become stiff in response to too much pressure. common form of arteriosclerosis. damage to inner lining and formation of a fatty streak in an artery.--fatty streak consist of an accumulation of lipoproteins within the walls. lipoprotein is a comvo of proteins, phospholipids..fat molecules wiht phosphate groups chemically attached..cholesterol...lipo can be thought of as packages that carry cholesterol and fats through the bloodstream
lesion- created by inner lining of an artery wall damaged by tobacco smoke, high bp or infection. lipos can acccumulate within wall..attract white blood cells
when white blood cells die within the lesion they form a core of lipid rich material - fatty streak,,leave a dynamic lesion
lumen. channel through which the blood flows, slowing blood flow and reducing the amount of blood that can reach the tissue supplied by the artery.
heart attacks, strokes, and peripheral vascular disease are all consequences of the narrowing of arteries caused by atherosclerosis.
when atherosclerosis involves a coronary artery ..chd
leading form of cvd. 16 million americans are living with chd.
heart attack and angina
when a coronary artery cecomes narrowed or blocked..heart muscle does not get enough oxygen rich blood..ischemia..artery completely blocked..heart attack ..or mi
heart attack is determind by the location and duration of the blockage..if blockage occcurs close to the aorta when the coronary arteries are just starting to branch...heart muscle is deprived of oxygen..smaller coronaryu artery...the area of muscle supplied is smaller.
transient ischemic attacks
ministrokes..periods of ischemia that produce the same symptoms as a stroke..warning sign of stroke.
pressure exerted by blood against the walls of arteries.
occurs when the pressure is great enough to damage artery walls...
bp is determind by two forces..pressure produced by the heart as it pumps the blood and the resistance of the arteries as they contain blood flow
systolic pressure- pressure in the arteries when the heart contracts, represented by the upper number in a blood pressure measurement
diastolic pressure-pressure in the arteries when the heart relaxes between contractions , represented by the lower number in a blood pressure measurement
"silent killer" no symptoms in hypertension.
congestive heart failure-when the heart is not pumping the blood as well as it should
can develop after a heart attack or as a result of hypertension.
heart valve disorders
valve does not open well..preventing the smooth flow of blood and sometimes a valve does not close tightly..allowing blood to leak backward
most common heart valve defect is mitral valve prolapse..separates the left atrium from the left ventricle
rheumatic heart disease-common cause of heart valve disorders and other heart damage is reheumatic faver..heart scarred following an infection with a strain of strep.
congential heart disease
more common defects is a septal defect-extra hole in the heart allows blood to flow from one atrium to the other or from one ventricle to the other. poorly oxygenated blood from the body mixes with oxygenated blood from the lungs. lower oxygen supply to the body
peripheral vascular disease
result of atherosclerosis in the arteries of the arms or legs.
disease of the heart muslce. dilated cardiomyopathy..enlargement of the heart in response to weakening of the muscle
abnormal thickening of one part of the heart. left venticle. heart doesnt fill well.
controllable risk factors in cvd
six: tobacco use, hypertension, unhealthy blood cholesterol levels, physical inactivity , over weight, and diabetes
amino acid that circulates in the blood and may damage the lining of blood vessels
genetics and diet play a role in setting homocysteine levels..blood levels are higher
metabolic syndrome..cvd and diabetes.
infalmmatory response and c reactive protein..stages of atherosclerosis. c reative protein--blood marker for inflammation that may indicate an increased risk for coronary heart disease
diagnostic test for a heart attack in which sound waves are used to visualixe heart valves, heart wall movement, and overall heart function
exercise stress test
procedure that evaluates how well the heart functions with exercise
diagnostic test for a heart attack in which a dye is injected into a fine catheter that is passed into the heart and x rays are taken as the dye moves through the heart, showing any blocked or narrowed coronary arteries
procedure to reopen a clocked coronary artery,
coronary artery bypass grafting
surgical procedure in which a healthy blood vessel is taken another part of the body and grafter to the cornary arteries to allow a bypass of blood flow around a narrowed vessel