Anatomy 306

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Anatomy 306
2012-05-02 00:19:48
Digestive System

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  1. What is the inner lining of the GI tract that is a mucous membrane? What layers is it made of?
    Mucosa. Epithelium, Lamina propria, and muscularis mucosae.
  2. What is the epithelium? Where is it found?
    • Layer of Mucosa. TYPE VARIES!
    • Found in the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, and anal canal.
    • Stratified squamous epithelium that serves as a protective function.
    • Columar epithelium functions in secretion and abs, lines the stomach and the intestines.
  3. What is the lamina propria?
    • Layer of mucosa.
    • Areolar connective tissue containing many blood vessels and lymphatic vessels.
    • Malt-mucus associated lymphatic tissue.
  4. What is the muscularis mucosae?
    • Layer of mucosa
    • smooth muscle
    • creates folds that generate more surface area to increase digestion and abs
  5. What is the submucosa?
    • Consists of alveolar connective tissue
    • Blood and lymphatic vessels
    • Neurons - suubmucosal plexus
  6. What is the muscularis?
    • Skeletal and smooth muscle
    • Neurons - myenteric plexus (between layers of the muscularis)
    • Voluntary swallowing
  7. What is the Serosa?
    • Areolar 7 simple squamos epithelium
    • Viseral peritoneum
  8. What is peritoneum?
    • Parietal peritoneum
    • Viseral peritoneum
    • Peritoneal cavity
    • Retroperitoneal
  9. What are the folds of the peritoneum?
    • Greater Omentum (adipose tissue)
    • Falciform Ligament (liver to the anterior abd wall)
    • Lessor Omentum
    • Mesentary (small intestine to posterior abd wall)
  10. What regulates the neural innervation of the GI tract?
    • "brain of the gut"
    • Autonomic nervous system
  11. What is the role of the ENS in the parasympathetic and the sympathetic?
    • They are like to the CNS by the extrinsic sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves.
    • Sympathetic nerves decrease GI secretions & motility.
    • parasympathetic nerves increase GI secretions & motility
  12. What makes of the Enteric division?
    • Myenteric plexus
    • submucosal plexus
  13. What is the function of the salivary glands?
    Rlease saliva to oral cavity
  14. What are the three pairs of the salivary glands?
    • Parotid
    • Submandibular
    • Sublingual
  15. What is the composition of saliva?
    • 95% water
    • 0.5% other (ions, mucus, enzymes, immunoglobulins)
    • Salivary Amylase = starches
    • Salivary Lipase
  16. What controls/stimulates salvation?
    It is controlled by the ANS and stimulated by various mechanisms
  17. What are the four main digestive system functions?
    • Ingestion
    • Digestion
    • Abs
    • Excretion
  18. What is deglutition?
    The movement of food from the mouth inot the stomach is achieved by the act of swallowing
  19. What are the three stages of deglutition?
    • Stages of swallowing
    • Pharyngeal
    • Esophageal
  20. What happens during "stages of swallowing" in deglutition?
    • Voluntary
    • mouth to oropharyx
  21. What happens during the Pharyngeal stage of deglutition?
    • Deglutition center
    • closing of the epiglottis
    • involuntary
  22. What happens during the esophageal phase?
    Involuntary peristatic concentrations
  23. What is the function of the stomach?
    Serves as mixing chamber & storage area for intested food
  24. What increases volume in to stomach?
    Rugae allows for increased volume
  25. What are four main groups of the stomach?
    • Cardia
    • Fundus
    • Body
    • Pylorus
  26. What structures are found in the region of the stomach that connects to the duodenum?
    • The pylorus
    • The pyloric antrum connects to the body of the stomach
    • The pyloric canal leads to the duodenum