What percent of all living plants are angiosperms?
What are flowers?
The reproductive organs of angiosperms
What is nectar?
A sugary secretion of flowers
THe basic structure of a flower consists of the four concentric whorls (circles) of appendages, which are?
What is the Calyx?
The outermost whorl of a flower, consits of one or more sepals (modified leaves) and it protects a flower from physical damage while its in a bud
What is the Corolla?
The second whorl of a flower, consists of flowers (also modified leaves), produces vividly colored pigments or fragrances that attract pollinators
What is the Androecium?
The third whorl which produces the microgametophytes, or pollen grains, made up of one or more stamens that consist of slender, thread-like filaments that are each topped by a pollen-containing sac called an anther
What is an anther?
A pollen-containing sac that is part of the Androecium
What is the Gynoecium?
The fourth and innermost whorl, that contains the ovules in which migagametophytes develop, consists of one or more pistils in the center of a flower
Where do ovules develop?
In a pistil's swollen lower portion, called the ovary
What may an ovary have?
One or more chambers
What rises from an ovary?
A slender stalk called the style
What does the style have?
A swollen sticky tip called the stigma where pollen lands and sticks to
What is a stigma?
The swollen sticky tip of the style where pollen lands
What is a style?
A slender stalk that rises from the ovary and has a swollen sticky tip
What is the ovary?
Swollen lower portion of a pistil whre ovules develop
What happens when a flower is pollinated?
A pollen tube emerges from each pollen grain and grows through the style and into the ovary
What is a complete flower?
Flower with all four whorls of appendages
What is a perfect flower?
A flower with a gynoecium and androecium
What are imperfect flowers?
Flowers lacking either a gynoecium or an androecium
What is an incomplete flower?
Flower that lacks any one of the four whorls
What are the affects of flowering plants coevolving with animals?
Certain insects specialize in visiting particular kinds of flowers
What flowers are both incomplete and imperfect? (example)
Flowers that lack either stamens or pistils (squash flowers)
How long ago did bees evolve?
100 million years and about the time flowering plants began diversify
How do bees locate sources of nectar?
First by odor, then by color and shape
What are the normal characteristics of bee pollinating flowers?
Yellow or blue and have lines to indicate location of nectar
Why can bees see the lines and we can't?
Because they see in the ultra violet spectrum
What do bees use pollen for?
To feed thier larvae
What characteristics to flowers butterflies tend to visit have?
"Landing platforms" so they can perch and tube-shapes filled with nectar
What flowers do flies pollinate?
Ones that smell like rotting meat
When and what flowers do moths visit?
At night they visit white, heavily scented flowers
Why are red flowers usually not super smelly and visited by humming birds?
Because humming birds have keen eyesight and poor smell
What are the characterisitics of angiosperms pollinated by bats?
Large, heavily scented and pale-colored flowers that open at night