First Aid .txt

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smalerich
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151626
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First Aid .txt
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2012-05-02 00:32:35
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First Aid for USMLE Step 1
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    • ACID
    • Hypersensitivity reactions.
    • Anaphylactic and Atopic (I)
    • Cytotoxic - antibody mediated (II)
    • Immune complex (III)
    • Delayed - cell mediated (IV)
  1. Organisms not covered by cephalosporins
    LAME: Listeria, atypicals, MRSA, enterococci
  2. First generation cephalosprins & effective against:
    PEcK: proteus mirabilis, E. Coli, klebsiella pneumonia. Cefazolin, cephalexin
  3. Second generation cephalosporins & effective against:
    HEN PEcKS: haemophilus influenza, enterobacter aerogenes, Neisseria spp, proteus mirabilis, E. Coli, klebsiella pneumonia, serratia marcescens. Cefoxitin, cefaclor, cefuroxime
  4. TCA toxicity
    Tri-C's: convulsions, coma, cardiotoxicity (use NaHCO3)
  5. SSRI's
    Flashbacks paralyze senior citizens: fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, citalopram
  6. MAOIs
    MAO Takes Pride In Shanghai: tranylcypromine, phenelzine, isocarboxazid, selegiline (MAO-B inhibitor)
  7. Trazodone
    Atypical antidepressant used for insomnia. TrazoBONE (toxicity - priapism)
  8. Cortisol
    BBIIG: Blood pressure (maintains by up regulating alpha1 receptors on arteries), Bone formation (decreases), Immunosuppressive (anti-Inflammatory), Insulin resistance, Gluconeogenesis
  9. Lower retina visual information
    Lower retina (upper visual fields), Lateral fibers, meyer Loop, Lingual gurus (inferior)
  10. Upper retina visual information
    Medial fibers (upper retina, lower visual fields), LGB to cuneus gyrus
  11. Parkinsons disease
    TRAPped in your own body: Tremor (pill rolling), cogwheel Rigidity, Akinesia, Postal instability
  12. Parkinsons disease drugs
    BALSA: Bromocriptine (dopamine against), Amantadine (increase dopamine release), Levodopa, Selegiline (MAO-B inhibit, prevents dopamine degradation), Benztropine (antimuscarinic - PARK your Benz)
  13. Antimuscarinic actions
    anti-SLUDG: decreased Salivation, Lacrimation, Urination, Defecation, Gi motility
  14. Huntingtons disease
    CAG repeats: Caudate loses ACh and GABA
  15. Normal pressure hydrocephalus
    Wet, wobbly & wacky: urinary incontinence, ataxia, dementia
  16. Vit B3 deficiency
    3 D's of B3: Diarrhea, Dermatitis, Dementia
  17. G protein linked second messengers
    qiss & qiq until you're siq of sqs - a1 a2 b1 b2 m1 m2 m3 d1 d2 h1 h2 v1 v2
  18. Bethanechol
    Bethany, call me if you want to activate your bowels and bladder
  19. Carbachol
    CARBon copy of ACh
  20. Pilocarpine
    You cry, drool and sweat on your PILOw.
  21. Neostigmine
    NEO CNS = no CNS (Anticholinesterase)
  22. PyRIDostigmine
    Gets RID of MG
  23. PHYsostigmine
    PHYxes atropine OD
  24. Mature ego defenses
    Mature women wear a SASH: Sublimation, Altruism, Suppression, Humor
  25. Short acting benzodiazepines
    TOM thumb: Triazolam, Oxazepam, Midazolam
  26. Intravenous anesthetics
    B. B. King on OPIATES PROPOses FOOLishly: Barbiturates, Benzodiazepines, Ketamine (arylcyclohexyalmines), Opiates, Propofol
  27. What produces succinyl CoA?
    VOMIT: Valine, Odd chain fatty acids, Methionine, Isoleucine, Threonine
  28. Urea cycle
    Ordinarily Careless Crappers Are Also Frivolous About Urination: Ornithine, Carbamoyl phosphate, Citrulline, Aspartate, Argininosuccinate, Fumarate, Arginine, Urea
  29. Organisms not covered by cephalosporins
    LAME: Listeria, Atypical (chlamydia, mycoplasma), MRSA, Enterococci
  30. HypanaGOgic hallucinations
    Occur while GOing to sleep
  31. HypnoPOMPic hallucinations
    POMPous upon awakening
  32. Cluster a personality disorders
    "Weird" (Accusatory, Aloof, Awkward) paranoid, schizoid (distant), schizotypal (magical thinking)
  33. Cluster B personality disorders
    "Wild" Bad to the Bone. Antisocial (sociopath), Borderline, Histrionic, Narcissistic
  34. Cluster C personality disorders
    "Worried" Cowardly, compylsive, clingy. Avoidant, Obsessive-compulsive, Dependent
  35. High potency antipsychotics
    Try to Fly High: Trifluoperazine, Fluphenazine, Haloperidol. SE - extrapyramidal symptoms
  36. Low potency antipsychotics
    Cheating Thieves are low: Chlorpromazine, Thioridazine SE - anticholinergic, antihistamine, alpha blockade effects
  37. Neurotic malignant syndrome (MMS)
    Antipsychotic toxicity - FEVER: Fever, Encephalopathy, Vitals unstable, Elevated enzymes, Rigidity of muscles
  38. Atypical antipsychotics
    It's atypical for Old CLOSets to QUIETly RIPPER from A to Z: Olanzapine, CLOZapine, QUETIapine, RISPERidone, Aripipazole, Ziprasidone
  39. Lithium side effects
    LMNOP: Lithium SE - Movement (tremor), Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, hypOthyroidism, Pregnancy problems
  40. Bugs that don't gram stain well
    These Rascals May Microscopically Lack Color: Treponema (too thin), Rickettsia (intracellular), Mycobacteria (acid fast), Mycoplasma (no cell wall), Legionella pneumonia (intracellular), Chlamydia (intracellular)
  41. Obligated aerobes
    Nagging Pests Must Breathe: Nocardia, Pseudomonas, Mycobacterium tb, Bacillus
  42. Obligate anaerobes
    Anaerobes Can't Breathe Air: Clostridium, Bacteroides, Actinomyces (ABC)
  43. Facultative intracellular bacteria
    Some Nasty Bugs May Live FacultativeLY: Salmonella, Listeria, Brucella, Mycobacterium, Listeria, Francisella, Legionella, Yersinia pestis
  44. Obligate intracellular bugs
    Stay inside cells when it is Really Cold: Rickettsia, Chlamydia
  45. Encapsulated bacteria
    Positive quellung test (capsules swelling) - SHiN SKiS: Strep pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenza type b, Neisseria, Salmonella, Klebsiella, group b Strep
  46. Catalase positive organisms
    You need SSPACE for your cats: S. Aureus, Serratia, Pseudomonas, Actinomyces, Candida, E. Coli
  47. Urease positive bugs
    PUNCH-K: Proteus, Ureaplasma, Nocardia, Cryptococcus, H. pylori, Klebsiella
  48. IgA protease
    SHiN: S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae type b, Neisseria
  49. Hypercalcemia causes
    MISHAP: Malignancy, Intoxication, Sarcoidosis, Hyperparathyroidism, Alkali syndrome, Pagets
  50. Type IV hypersensitivity reactions
    4 T's: T lymphocytes, Transplant rejections, TB skin tests, Touching (contact dermatitis)
  51. Tay Sachs
    Tay SaX: heXosaminidase deficiency
  52. Niemann Picks
    No man picks his nose with his sphinger: sphingomyelinase deficiency
  53. Hunters syndrome
    Hunters see clearly and aim for the X: no corneal clouding, X linked recessive
  54. VPM
    Makeup goes on the face (face sensation and taste)
  55. Cytokines secreted by macrophages
    Hot T-Bone stEAk: IL-1 - fever (hot), IL-2 - stimulates T cells, IL-3 - stimulates Bone marrow, IL-4 - stimulates IgE, IL-5 - stimulates IgA. Clean up on aisle 8: IL-8 - recruits neutrophils. Also secreted IL-12 and TNF-alpha
  56. Limbic system
    5 F's: Feeding, Fleeing, Fighting, Feeling, Fucking
  57. Acute pancreatitis causes
    GET SMASHED: Gallstones, Ethanol, Trauma, Steroids, Mumps, Autoimmune disease, Scorpion sting, Hypercalcemia/Hypertriglyceridemia (>1000), ERCP, Drugs (sulfa)
  58. Whipple's disease
    Foam Whipped cream in a CAN: Foamy (PAS positive macrophages), Cardiac symptoms, Arthralgias, Neurological symptoms
  59. Biotin deficiency
    AVIDin in egg whites AVIDly binds Biotin
  60. Squamous cell carcinoma
    Squamous Central Smoking. Central, Cavitation Clearly linked to Smoking.
  61. Chlamydia trachomatis types A, B, C
    ABC = Africa, Blindness, Chronic infection
  62. Loop diuretics
    Loops Lose calcium
  63. Loop diuretics toxicity
    OH DANG! Ototoxicity, Hypokalemia, Dehydration, Allergy (sulfa), Nephritis (intestinal), Gout
  64. Acetazolamide toxicity
    ACIDazolamide causes ACIDosis
  65. Aluminum hydroxide SEs
    AluMINIMUM amount of feces (constitution)
  66. Magnesium hydroxide SEs
    Mg = Must Go to the bathroom (diarrhea)
  67. Treatment for actinomyces and nocardia
    SNAP: Sulfa for Nocardia, Actinomyces gets Penicillin
  68. Hydrochlorothiazide toxicity
    HyperGLUC: hyperGlycemia, hyperLipidemia, hyperUricemia, hyperCalcemia
  69. Inguinal hernias
    MDs don't LIe: Medial to inf epigastric artery = Direct hernia. Lateral to inf epigastric artery = Indirect hernia
  70. Indirect inguinal hernia
    INternal (deep) inguinal ring, INto scrotum, INfants due to failure of processus vaginal to close (covered by all 3 layers of spermatic fascia)
  71. Potassium sparing diuretics
    The potassium STAys: Spironolactone, Triamterene, Amiloride
  72. Picornavirus
    PicoRNAvirus: small RNA virus.
  73. Picornavirus types
    PERCH on a "peak": Poliovirus, Echovirus, Rhinovirus, Coxsackievirus, HAV. Peak = pico.
  74. Types of collagen
    Be (So Totally) Cool, Read Books: 1 = Bone, Skin, Tendon, 2 = Cartilage, 3 = Reticulin 4 = Basement membrane
  75. Type one collagen
    bONE
  76. Type TWO collagen
    carTWOlage
  77. Type threE collagen
    Defective in Ehlers-Danlos (threE D)
  78. Relationship of pulmonary artery to bronchus
    RALS: Right Anterior, Left Superior
  79. InSpiratory muscles
    External intercostals, Scale muscles, Sternomastoids
  80. Physiological dead space (Vd)
    • Taco Paco Peco Paco: tidal volume x ((PaCO2 - PeCO2)/PaCO2)
    • PeCO2 = expired CO2
  81. METHemoglobinemia treatment
    METHylene blue
  82. Right shifted oxygen hemoglobin dissociation curve
    C-BEAT: CO2, BPG (2,3 BPG), Exercise, Altitude/Acid, Temperature
  83. Pulmonary embolus
    An emobolus moves like a FAT BAT. Fat, Air, Thrombus, Bacteria, Amniotic fluid, Tumor
  84. Lung cancer complications
    SPHERE: Superior vena cava syndrome, Pancoast tumor, Horners syndrome, Endocrine (paraneoplastic), Recurrent laryngeal symptoms (harshness), Effusions (plural or pericardial)
  85. Essential amino acids
    PVT TIM HALL: phenylalanine, Valine, threonine, tryptophan, isoleucine, Methionine, histidine, Arginine, lysine, leucine
  86. Von hippel-lindau disease
    3 words = chromosome 3. Autosomal dominant.
  87. Warfarin
    The EX-President went to War. Extrinsic pathway, increased PT. Warfarin.
  88. Partial mole
    69 chromosomes, PARTial = fetal PARTs. Low risk of malignancy
  89. Campylobacter jejuni
    CAMPylobacter likes hot CAMPfire. Grow at 42deg C. Bloody diarrhea, comma shaped. Oxidase +
  90. Niacin
    Nad derived from Niacin. B3 = 3 ATP
  91. Segmented viruses
    BOAR: Bunyaviruses, Orthomyxoviruses, (influenza viruses), Arenaviruses, Reoviruses (Rotavirus). All RNA viruses. Change genome (cause endemic - genetic shift)
  92. Rotavirus
    ROTA = Right Out The Anus. Infantile gastroenteritis in winter.
  93. Cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning.
    • DUMBBELSS: Diarrhea, Urination, Miosis, Bronchospasm,
    • Bradycardia, Excitation (skeletal muscle & CNS), Lacrimation, Sweating, Salivation. Most commonly organophosphates (parathion)
  94. Neisseria MeninGococci
    Ferments Maltose and Glucose
  95. Neisseria Gonococci
    Ferments Glucose
  96. Class III antiarrhythmics
    K IS BAD: Ibutilide, Sotalol, Bretylium, Amiodarone, Dofetilide
  97. Lysogeny, specialized transduction
    ABCDE: shigA-like toxin, Botulinum toxin, Cholera toxin, Diphtheria toxin, Erythrogenic toxin of streptococcus pyogenes
  98. Proximal median nerve lesion
    Proximal median nerve lesion can also look like Popes blessing (ulnar nerve lesion)
  99. WBC Differentiation
    Neutrophils Like Making Everything Better: Neutrophils > Lymphocytes > Monocytes > Eosinophils > Basophils
  100. Eosinophilia
    NAACP: Neoplastic, Asthma, Allergic processes, Collagen vascular diseases, Parasites (invasive)
  101. Basophilic stippling
    BASte the ox TAIL: Thalassemias, Anemia of chronic disease, Iron deficiency, Lead poisoning
  102. Target cell
    HALT said the hunter to his target: HbC disease, Asplenia, Liver disease, Thalassemia
  103. Lead poisoning
    • LEAD: Lead Lines (burtons lines - gingivae & epiphses of long bones)
    • Encephalopathy & Erythrocyte basophilic stippling (aggregation of ribosomes)
    • Abdominal Coli & sideroblastic Anemia
    • Drops (wrist & foot) Dimercaprol & eDta
  104. Lead poisoning treatment in kids
    It SUCks to be a kid who eats lead: SUCcimer
  105. Class 1A antiarrhythmics
    The Queen Proclaims Disos Pyramid: Quinidine, Procainamide, Disopyramide
  106. Class 1B antiarrhythmics
    I'd Buy Lidys Mexican Tacos: 1B = Endocrine, Mexiletine, Cocaine.1B is Best post-MI
  107. Class 1C antiarrhythmics
    1C is Contraindicated post-MI
  108. Rheumatic fever
    FEVERSS: Fever, Erythema marginatum, Valvular damage (vegetation & fibrosis), Esr increased, Red hot joints (migratory polyarthritis), Subcutaneous nodules, St. Virus dance (chorea)
  109. Frederick ataxia
    Friedrich is Fratastic (frataxin) - trinucleotide repeat GAA
  110. Staphylococci
    On the offices staff retreat, there was NO StRES. NOvobiocin: Saprophyticus is Resistant, Epidermidis is Sensitive
  111. Streptococci
    • OVRPS (overpass): Optochin - Viridans is Resistant, Pneumoniae is Sensitive
    • B-BRAS: Bacitracin - group B is Resistant, group A is Sensitive
  112. HSV identification
    Tzanck heavens I do not have herpes. Tzanck test
  113. 22q11 deletion syndromes
    CATCH-22: Cleft palate, Abnormal facies, Thymic aplasia, Cardiac defect, Hypocalcemia
  114. MEN 1
    3 P's: Pituitary, Parathyroid, Pancreas
  115. MEN 2A
    2 P's: Parathyroid, Pheochromocytoma
  116. MEN 2B
    1 P: Pheochromocytoma (& oral/intestinal ganglioneuromatosis - Marfanoid habits)
  117. Neurofibromatosis type 1
    von Recklinghausens disease. Chromosome 17 - 17 letters in von Recklinghausen
  118. AL Amyloid
    Light chain (malignant melanoma)
  119. AA Amyloid
    Acute-phase reactant. Chronic inflammatory disease
  120. AF Amyloid
    Old Fogies. Senile cardiac (transthyretin)
  121. AE Amyloid
    Endocrine. DM (Amylin)
  122. A-CAL Amyloid
    Calcitonin. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid
  123. Patau's syndrome
    Trilogy 13 (think P=Puberty even though they die within 1 yr) cleft liP/Palate, holoProsencephaly, Polydactyly
  124. Insulin's effect on K
    INsulin shifts K INto cells (increases Na/K ATPase)
  125. Anion gap (metabolic acidosis)
    Increased in MUDPILES: Methanol, Uremia, Diabetic ketoacidosis, Paraldehyde (or Phenformin), Iron tablets (or INH), Lactic acidosis, Ethylene glycol, Salicylates
  126. NephrItic syndrome
    Inflammatory process
  127. Uric acid kidney stones
    Uric acid - raduolUcent.
  128. WAGR Complex
    Wilms tumor, Aniridia, Genitourinary malformation, mental Retardation
  129. Transitional cell carcinoma
    Problems with your Pee SAC - Phenacetin, Smoking, Aniline dyes, Cyclophosphamide
  130. Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    PSEUDOmonas - Pneumonia (esp CF), Sepsis (black skin lesions), External otitis (swimmers ear), UTI, Drug use & Diabetic Osteomyelitis. AERuginosa = AERobic
  131. PDA
    ENDomethacin (indomethacin) ENDs PDA. PGEE kEEps it open
  132. Meckels diverticulum
    Five 2's. 2 inches long, 2 ft from ileocecal valve, 2% population, first 2 yrs of life, 2 types of epithelia possible (gastric, pancreatic)
  133. Staphylococcus
    Staph make Catalase bc they have more staff. (bad staff make coagulase - s. Aureus)
  134. Potters syndrome
    Babies who can't Pee in utero develop Potters
  135. Captopril toxicity
    CAPTOPRIL - Cough, Angioedema, Proteinuria, Taste changes, hypOtension, Pregnancy problems (fetal renal damage), Rash, Increased renin, Lower ang II. Also hyperkalemia
  136. Blotting procedures
    SNoW DRoP - Southern = DNA, Northern = DNA, Western = Protein
  137. Imprinting
    Prader-Willi - Paternal gene deletion, AngelMan syndrome - Maternal gene deletion. Chromosome 15
  138. Common peroneal nerve
    PED - Peroneal Everts and Dorsiflexes. Foot dropPED with damage
  139. Tibial nerve
    TIP - Tibial nerve Inverts and Planterflexes. If damaged, can't stand on TIPtoes
  140. First branchial arch
    M - Meckels cartilage: Mandible, Malleus, incus, spheno-Mandibular ligament, Muscles of Mastication (Masseter, lateral and Medial pterygoids, temporalis), Mylohyoid, ant belly of digastric, tenor tympani, tenor velo palatini. CN V
  141. Second branchial arch derivatives
    S - reicherts cartilage: Stapes, Styloid process, lesser horn of hyoid, Stylohyoid ligament, muscles of facial expression, Stapedius, Stylohyoid, post belly of digastric. CN VII
  142. Third branchial arch
    CN IX - stylo-pharyngeus
  143. Fourth branchial arch
    CN X - superior laryngeal branch. Cricothyroid, levator veli palatini
  144. Sixth branchial arch
    CN X - recurrent laryngeal. Intrinsic muscles of larynx except cricothyroid
  145. Branchial arch derivatives
    When at the restaurant of the golden ARCHES, children tend to first CHEW, then SMILE, then SWALLOW STYLishly (3), or SIMPLY SWALLOW (4), and then SPEAK (6)
  146. Branchial pouch derivatives
    Ear, tonsils, bottom-to-top: 1 (ear), 2 (tonsils), 3 dorsal (bottom = inf parathyroids), 3 ventral (To = Thymus), 4 (top = superior parathyroids)
  147. Vitamin B1 deficiency
    Ber1ber1. Thiamine
  148. Thiamine function
    ATP synthesis - Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, Transketolase, Pyruvate dehydrogenase
  149. Radial nerve
    BEST extensors - Brachioradialis, Extensors of wrist and fingers, Supinators, Triceps
  150. Macrolide function
    MacroSLIDES - block translocation (bind to 23S of 50S)
  151. Multiple Myeloma
    Monoclonal M protein spike. CRAB - hyperCalcemia, Renal insufficiency, Anemia, Bone lytic lesions/Back pain.
  152. Brutons agammaglobulinemia
    Boys (X-Linked recessive), defect in BTK (tyrosine kinase)
  153. Tetralogy of Fallot
    PROVe - Pulmonary stenosis, RVH, Overriding aorta, VSD
  154. Isoniazid
    INH Injures Nerves & Hepatocytes. Give B6 (pyridoxine) to prevent nerve injury
  155. Femoral triangle organization
    You go from lateral to Medial to find your NAVEL - Nerve, Artery, Vein, Empty, Emphatic
  156. Start codon
    AUG inAUGurates protein synthesis
  157. Stop codons
    UGA = U Go Away. UAA = U Are Away. UAG = U Are Gone
  158. tRNA
    CCA at 3' end - Can Carry Amino acid
  159. SLE
    I'M DAMN SHARP - Immunoglobulins (anti-dsDNA, anti-Am, antiphospholipid), Malar rash, Discord rash, Antinuclear antibody, Mucositis, Neurologic disorders, Serositis, Hematologic disorders, Arthritis, Renal disorders, Photosensitivity
  160. BIG infection time course
    4 F's - 1 Flulike, 2 Feeling fine, 3 Falling count, 4 Final crisis
  161. Addisons disease
    A - Adrenal Atrophy, Absence of hormone production, All 3 cortical divisions
  162. Naegleria fowleri
    Nalgene bottle filled with freshwater containing Naegleria. (from swimming in freshwater) FOWLeri smell FOWL - enter VIA cribriform plate
  163. Rifampin
    4 R's - RNA polymers inhibitor, Revs up P-450, Red/orange body fluids, Rapid resistance if used alone
  164. Fluoeoquinolones toxicity
    FluoroquinoLONES hurt attachment to your BONES
  165. Aminoglycoside toxicity
    Mean GNATS canNOT kill anaerobes - Gentamicin, Neomycin, Amikacin, Tobramycin, Streptomycin. Nephrotoxicity (esp w cephalosporin), Ototoxicity (esp w loop diuretics), Teratogen
  166. Chlorpromazine SE
    C = Corneal deposits
  167. Thioridazine SE
    T = reTinal deposits
  168. Child development age 2
    2-word sentences at age 2
  169. Child development age 3
    Pee at 3. Rides 3-cycle at 3.
  170. Live attenuated viral vaccines
    Live! One night only! See SMALL YELLOW CHICKENS get fascinated with SABINS and MMR! SMALLpox, YELLOW fever, CHICKENpox (VZV), SABINS polio virus, MMR
  171. Killed viral vaccines
    SalK = Killed. RIP Always - Rabies, Influenza, salk Polio, hAv
  172. Cells that don't need insulin for glucose uptake
    BRICK L - Brain, RBCs, Intestine, Cornea, Kidney, Liver
  173. Epispadias
    Epispadias associated with Exstrophy of the bladder
  174. Heinz bodies.
    HEinz bodies are oxidized HEmoglobin precipitated within RBCs
  175. Protease inhibitors
    -NAVIR TEASE a proTEASE. End in -navir
  176. Trimethoprim
    TMP - Treats Marrow Poorly (megaloblastic anemia, leukopenia, granulocytopenia)
  177. Hawthorne effect
    Dr. Hawthorne is watching you. Change in behavior due to knowledge of being watched
  178. Type I error
    Alpha - you sAw a difference that did not exist. False positive
  179. Type II error
    Beta - you were Blind to a difference that did exist. False negative
  180. t-test
    Mr. T is mean. Tests difference between means of 2 groups
  181. ANOVA
    ANOVA = ANalysis Of VAriance of 3 or more variables. Difference between means
  182. Disease prevention
    PDR - Prevent (primary), Detect (secondary), Reduce disability (tertiary)
  183. Apgar score
    Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, Respiration. Should be at least 7. Resusitate if <4
  184. Sleep stages - EEG waves
    At night BATS Drink Blood - Beta (awake, alert), Alpha (awake, not alert), Theta (light sleep - stage 1), Sleep spindles and k complexes (deeper sleep, bruxism, stage 2), Delta (deep sleep - slow wave, low frequency, high amplitude, stage 3), Beta (REM)
  185. ADPKD
    chromosome 16 - polycystic kidney has 16 letters.
  186. Familial anomalous polyposis
    Chromosome 5 - 5 letters in polyp. APC gene. Autosomal dominant
  187. Neurofibromatosis type 2
    Chromosome 22. Type 2 = 22
  188. X-linked recessive disorders
    Be Wise, Fools GOLD Herds Silly Hope. Brutons agammaglobulinemia, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, Fabrys disease, G6PD deficiency, Collar albinism, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, Duchennes (and Beckers) muscular Exstrophy, Hunters Syndrome, Hemophilia A and B
  189. Duchennes muscular dystrophy
    Duchennes = Deleted Dystrophin. (Beckers is mutation - no frameshift)
  190. Fragile X syndrome
    Fragile X = eXtra large testes, jaw, ears. Also artist, MVP.
  191. Trinucleotide repeat expansion diseases
    Try (TRInucleotide) HUNTING for MY FRIED eggs (X) - Huntingtons disease, Myotonic dystrophy, Friedrichs Arabia, fragile X syndrome.
  192. Trinucleotide repeats
    X-Girlfriends First Aid Helped Ace My Test - fragile X = CGG, Friedrichs ataxia = GAA, Huntingtons disease = CAG, Myotonic dystrophy = CTG
  193. Edwards syndrome
    Edwards - Election age (chromosome 18), Ears (low set). Death by 1
  194. Vitamin B2 deficiency
    riboflavin. 2 Cs of B2 - Cheilosis, Corneal vascularization
  195. Vitamin B2 function
    FAD and FMN derived from riboFlavin. B2 = 2 ATP
  196. Vitamin E function
    E is for Erythrocyte protection (antioxidant)
  197. Maple syrup urine disease
    I Love Vermont maple syrup. Isoleucine, Leucine, Valine. Smells like burnt sugar.
  198. Legionella culture medium
    French leguonnaire with his SILVER helmet, sitting around a CAMPFIRE with his IRON dagger - he is no SISSY. Silver stain, grow on Charcoal yeast extract with Iron and Cysteine
  199. Protein synthesis inhibitors
    Buy AT 30 CCEL (sell) at 50. Aminoglycosides (bactericidal) and Tetracyclines (bacteriostatic) block 30S. Chloramphenicol (static) Clindamycin (static) Erythromycin (macrolides - static), Linezolid block 50S
  200. Metabolism occurring in both cytoplasm and mitochondria
    HUGS take two. Heme synthesis, Urea cycle, Gluconeogenesis
  201. Glucokinase
    GLUcokinase is a GLUtton. It can't be satisfied - has a high Vmax. Induced by insulin, no feedback inhibition by glucose-6-phosphate
  202. Ketogenic amino acids
    L - Lysine and Leucine
  203. Corynebacterium diphtheriae
    ABCDEFG - ADP ribosylation, Beta-prophage, Corynebacterium Diphtheriae, Elongation Factor 2 inhibition, Granules (blue and red)
  204. Etanercept
    EtanerCEPT is a TNF decoy reCEPTor
  205. Streptococci sanguis
    Sanguis = blood. Lots of blood in heart (endocarditis) strep viridans
  206. Dilated (congestive) cardiomyopathy
    ABCCCD - Alcohol abuse, wet Beriberi, Coxsackie B virus myocarditis, chronic Cocaine use, Changes disease, Doxorubicin toxicity
  207. Wilms tumor
    Deletion of WT1 gene - double 1 = 11. Chromosome 11
  208. Basophilic anterior Pituitary hormones
    B-FLAT: Basophils - FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH
  209. PTH
    PTH - Phosphate Trashing Hormone
  210. Endocrine hormones that stimulate cAMP
    FLAT CHAMP - FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH, CRH, hCG, ADH (V2 receptor), MSH, PTH. Also calcitonin, GNRH, glucagon
  211. Endocrine hormones that stimulate IP3
    GOAT - GnRH, Oxytocin, ADH (V1 receptor), TRH. Also histamine (H1), angiotensin II, gastrin
  212. Catholic steroid receptor Endocrine hormones
    VET CAP - Vitamin D, Estrogen, Testosterone, Cortical, Aldosterone, Progesterone (adrenaline hormones + vitamin D)
  213. Endocrine hormones nuclear steroid receptor
    T3/T4
  214. Endocrine hormones receptor-associated tyrosine kinds (JAM/STAT pathway)
    PiG - Prolactin, GH. Also Cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, IL-8)
  215. T3 functions
    4 B's - Brain maturation, Bone growth, Beta-adrenergic effects, BMR increase
  216. First aortic arch
    MAXimal - MAXillary artery (branch of external carotid)
  217. Second aortic arch
    Second = Stapedial (and hyoid) artery
  218. Third aortic arch
    C is the 3rd letter of the alphabet - Carotid artery and Proximal internal carotid
  219. Salmonella
    Salmon swim - mobile and disseminate. Have flagella
  220. Glycogen storage diseases
    Very Poor Carbohydrate Metabolism - Von Gierkes disease, Pompes disease, Coris disease, McArdles disease
  221. Pompes disease
    Pompes trashed the Pump (heart, liver, muscle)
  222. McArdles disease
    McArdles = Muscle
  223. Irreversible enzymes of gluconeogenesis
    Pathway Produces Fresh Glucose - Pyruvate carboxylase, PEP carboxykinase, Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, Glucose-6-phosphatase
  224. Fatty acid metabolism
    SYtrate = SYnthesis, CARnitine = CARnage of fatty acids
  225. TCA cycle
    Citrate Is Krebs Starting Substrate For Making Oxaloacetate - Citrate, Isocitrate, alpha-KG, Succinyl CoA, Succinate, Fumarate, Malate, Oxaloacetate
  226. Mesodermal defects
    VACTERL - Vertebral defects, Anal atresia, Cardiac defects, Tracheo-Esophageal fistula, Renal defects, Limb defects (bone and muscle)
  227. Thalidomide teratogenicity
    Limb defects with tba-limb-domide
  228. Fetal erythropoiesis
    Young Liver Synthesizes Blood - Yolc sac (embryo - wk 3-8), Liver (wk 6-30), Spleen (wk 9-28), Bone marrow (after 28 wks)
  229. Postnatal derivative of allantois
    AllaNtois - urachus - mediaN biblical ligament
  230. Branchial apparatus
    CAP covers outside to inside - Clefts (ectoderm), Arches (mesoderm and neural crest), Pouches (endoderm)
  231. Pheochromocytoma
    Rule of 10s - 10% malignant, bilateral, extra-adrenal, calcify, kids, familial
  232. Episodic hyperadrenergic symptoms of pheochromocytoma
    5 Ps - Pressure, Pain (headache), Perspiration, Palpitations, Pallor
  233. Primary hyperparathyroidism
    Stones, bones (osteitis fibrosis cystica) and groans (constipation)
  234. Carcinoid syndrome
    Rule of 1/3s - 1/3 metastasize, present with 2nd malignancy, multiple
  235. Mesonephric (wolffian) duct
    SEED - Seminal vesicles, Ejaculatory duct, Epididymis, Ductus deferens
  236. VDRL False Positives
    Test for syphilis. False negatives - VDRL - Viruses (mono, hepatitis), Drugs, Rheumatic fever, Lupus and leprosy
  237. Buspirone
    I'm always anxious if the BUS will be ON time so I take BUSpirONe. (generalized anxiety disorder)
  238. Measles
    3 Cs - Cough, Coryza (runny nose), Conjunctivitis
  239. Biotin
    AVIDin in egg whites AVIDly binds biotin
  240. Picornavirus
    PERCH on a "peak" - Poliovirus, Echovirus, Rhinovirus, Coxsackievirus, HAV. Peak = pico. Enteroviruses, SS+ linear
  241. Transformation
    Pick up DNA from environment. SHiN - S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae type B, Neisseria
  242. S. pneumoniae
    S. pneumoniae MOPS are Most OPtochin Sensitive. MOPS = Meningitis, Osteitis media, Pneumonia, Sinusitis (most common cause)
  243. Streptococcus pyogenes
    PHaryngitis can result in rheumatic PHever and glomerulonePHritis. No RHEUM for SPECCulation - Subcutaneous plaques, Polyarthritis, Erythema marginatum, Chorea, Carditis (all caused by rheumatic fever)
  244. Lepromatous leprosy
    LEprimatous can be LEthal
  245. Lactose-fermenting enteric bacteria
    Lactose is KEE. MacConKEES agar. Citrobacter, Klebsiella, E. coli, Enterobacter, Serratia
  246. Haemophilus influenzae
    HaEMOPhilus causes Epiglottitis, Meningitis, Otitis media, Pneumonia
  247. Klebsiella
    4 As - Aspiration pneumonia, Abscess in lungs and liver, Alcoholics, di-A-betics
  248. Spirochetes
    BLT - Borrelia, Leptospira, Treponema. B is Big - Borrelia is big (visualized with Aniline dyes - Wrights or Giemsa stain)
  249. Lyme disease
    BAKE a key Lyme pie - Bells palsy (bilateral), Arthritis, Kardiac block, Erythema migrans
  250. Rickettsial disease with rash
    Rickettsia on the wRist, Typhus on the Trunk
  251. Q fever
    Q fever is Queer bc it has no vector, no rash, negative Weil-Felix, forms spores, no Rickettsia genus name
  252. Palm and sole rash
    You drive CARS using your palms and soles. Coxsackie A infection (hand, foot and mouth disease), RMSF, Syphilis
  253. Paracoccidioidomycosis
    Parasails with the Captains Wheel all the way to Latin America. (budding test with captains wheel appearance)
  254. Sporothrix schenckii treatment
    Plant a ROSE in the POT. ROSE gardeners disease. Treat with POTassium iodide (or itraconazole)
  255. Killed viral vaccines
    RIP Always - Rabies, Influenza, Salk Polio, HAV. SalK = Killed
  256. NonSelective beta blockers
    Please Try Not Being Picky - Propanolol, Timolol, Nadolol, (Beta blockers), Pindolol
  257. beta blockers with Partial agonist properties
    PAPA: Partial beta Agonists - Pindolol, Acebutolol
  258. Bacterial endocarditis
    Bacteria FROM JANE - Fever, Roths spots (white spots on retina surrounded by hemorrhage), Oslers nodes (tender raised lesions on finger or toe pads), Murmur, Janeway lesions (small erythematous lesions on palm or sole), Anemia, Nail-bed hemorrhage (splinter hemorrhage), Emboli
  259. Foscarnet
    FOScarnet = pyroFOSphate analog
  260. Trypanosoma brucei
    African sleeping sickness. Treat with SURamin for blood-borne disease or MELArsoprol for CNS penetration. It SURe is nice to go to sleep; MELAtonin helps with sleep
  261. Enterobius vermicularis
    Pinworm. Worms are BENDy so treat with meBENDazole
  262. Onchocerca volvulus treatment
    IVERmectin for rIVER blindness
  263. Nematode infections from ingestion
    Roundworms. You'll get sick if you EAT these - Enterobius, Ascaris, Trichinella. Treat with bendazoles or pyrantel pamoate
  264. Cutaneous nematode infections
    Roundworms. These get into your feet from the SANd - Steongyloides, Ancylostoma, Necator
  265. DNA viral genomes
    All are dsDNA except parvovirus (ssDNA). Parvovirus is part-of-a-virus.
  266. RNA viral genomes
    All RNA viruses are ssRNA except REOvirus (REpeatO-virus) - dsRNA.
  267. Positive-stranded RNA viruses
    I went to a RETRO YOGA party where I drank FLAVored CORONA and ate HIPPY CALIfornia PICkles. RETROvirus, TOGAvirus, FLAVivirus, CORONAvirus, HEPEvirus, CALIcivirus, PICornavirus
  268. Viral envelopes
    Naked CPR (RNA) and PAPP (DNA) smears. NAKED (nonenveloped) viruses include Calcivirus, Picornavirus, Reovirus, Parvovirus, Adenovirus, Papilloma, Polyoma.
  269. DNA viruses
    DNA viruses are HHAPPPPy - Hepadna, Herpes, Adenovirus, Pox, Parvovirus, Papilloma, Polyoma
  270. Amphotericin B
    AmphoTEARacin TEARS holes in the final membrane by forming pores. (binds to ergosterol) causes fevers/chills (shake and bake)
  271. Polyomavirus
    JC & BK virus - Junky Cerebrum, Bad Kidney
  272. Paramyxoviruses
    PaRaMyxovirus - Parainfluenza (croup), RSV (bronchitis in babies, treat with ribavirin), Rubeola (Measles) Mumps
  273. Negative-stranded viruses
    Always Bring Polymerase Or Fail Replication - Arenavirus, Bunyavirus, Paramyxovirus, Orthomyxovirus, Filovirus, Rhabdovirus
  274. Flavivirus
    Flavi = yellow. Yellow fever virus (jaundice)
  275. Fecal-oral hepatitis viruses
    The vowels hit your bowels - HAV & HEV. (naked viruses - don't rely on envelope so aren't destroyed by gut)
  276. HAV
    Asymptomatic, Acute, Alone (no carriers)
  277. HEV
    Enteric, Expectant mothers, Epidemic
  278. Rifampin
    RifAMPin AMPlified CYP450
  279. Pneumonia causes ages 4 wk - 18 yr
    Runts May Cough Sputum - RSV (viruses), Mycoplasma, Chlamydia trachomatis, Strep pneumoniae,
  280. Torches infections
    ToRCHHeS - Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella, CMV (C-zures), HIV, HSV-2, Syphilis
  281. Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Pseudomonas AIRuginosa - nosocomial infections when AIR (respiratory equipment) or burns are involved
  282. Metronidazole
    GET GAP on the Metro! Giardia, Entamoeba, Trichomonas, Gardnerella vaginalis, Anaerobes (bacteroides, c. Difficile), h. Pylori
  283. Amantadine
    A Man 2 dine takes off his coat. Blocks uncoating, M2 protein. Amantadine blocks influenza A and causes problems with cerebellA
  284. NRTIs
    Have you dined (vudine) with my nuclear (nucleosides) family
  285. Antibiotics to avoid in pregnancy
    Countless SAFe Moms Take Really Good Care - Clarithromycin, Sulfonamides, Aminoglycosides, Fluoroquinolones, Metronidazole, Tetracyclines, Ribavirin, Griseofulvin, Chloramohenicol
  286. Vinblastine
    VinBLASTine BLASTs Bone marrow (suppression)
  287. Vincristine
    VINcristine - Microtubules are the VINes of your cells. Bind to tubulin
  288. Caspofungin
    CAspofungin - treats Candidate and invasive Aspergillus. Blocks glucan synthesis
  289. Gastric ulcer
    Pain Greater with meals (weight loss)
  290. Duodenal ulcer
    Pain Decreases with meals (weight gain)
  291. Asplenic
    Susceptible to encapsulated organisms - S SHIN - Salmonella, S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, N. meningitidis
  292. HLA-B27
    PAIR - Psoriasis, Ankylosing spondylitis, IBD, Reiters syndrome
  293. Fc region of AB
    fC region - Constant, Carboxy terminal, Complement binding at Ch2 (IgG & IgM only), Carbohydrate side chains. Determines isotype
  294. Classic complement pathway
    Classic - GM makes classic cars (IgG, IgM)
  295. Passive immunity
    To Be Healed Rapidly after exposure to Tetanus toxin, Botulinum toxin, HBV, or Rabies virus patients are given reformed antibodies
  296. Wrist bones
    Some Lovers Try Positions That They Can't Handle - Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetrum, Pisiform, Trapezium, Trapezoid, Capitate, Hamate
  297. HDV
    D - Depends on HbsAg for envelope protein
  298. Hyper-IgE syndrome
    FATED - coarse Facies, cold staphylococcal Abscesses, retained primary Teeth, increased IgE, Dermatologic problems (eczema)
  299. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome
    TIE - Thrombocytopenic purpura, Infections, Eczema
  300. Down syndrome neoplasms
    We ALL fall Down - ALL (& AML)
  301. Pancreatic cancer tumor mutation
    DPC - Deleted in Pancreatic Cancer. Tumor suppressor gene
  302. Colon cancer gene mutation
    DCC - Deleted in Colon Cancer. Tumor suppressor gene
  303. Beta-HCG tumor marker
    HCG - Hydatidiform moles, Choriocarcinomas, Gestational trophoblastic tumors
  304. Psammoma bodies
    PSaMMoma - Papillary (thyroid), Serous (ovary), Meningioma, Mesothelioma. Concentric, calcific spherules
  305. Therapeutic index
    TILE - TI = LD50/ED50. Higher TI = safer drug
  306. Verapamil
    Verapamil = Ventricle - greatest effect on heart
  307. Stoke volume
    SV CAP - Stroke Volume affected by Contractility, Afterload, Preload. (Decreased by increased Afterload)
  308. Early cyanosis (blue babies)
    5 Ts - Tetralogy (most common), Transposition, Truncus arteriosus, Tricuspid atresia (no valve, hypoplastic RV, requires both ASD & VSD), TAPVR (Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return)
  309. Coarctation of the aorta
    INfantile - IN close to the heart (preductal). ADult - Distal to Ductus
  310. Retroperitoneal structures
    SAD PUCKER - Suprarenal (adrenal) gland, Aorta & IVC, Duodenum (parts 2, 3 & 4), Pancreas (except tail), Ureters, Colon (ascending & descending), Kidneys, Esophagus (lower 2/3), Rectum (upper 2/3)
  311. Sympathomimetics
    MAST - Metaproterenol & Albuterol for acute asthma, Salmeterol for long-term treatment, Terbutaline to reduce premature uterine contractions
  312. Digitalis antidote
    KLAM - normalize K+, Lidocaine, Anti-dig Fab fragments (digibind), Mg2+
  313. Drugs causing Cutaneous flushing
    VANC - Vancomycin, Adenosine, Niacin, Calcium channel blockers
  314. Drugs causing agranulocytosis
    Agranulocytosis Could Certainly Cause Pretty Major Damage - Clozapine, Carbamazepine, Colchicine, Propylthiouracil, Methimazole, Dapsone
  315. Drugs causing hemolysis in G6PD deficient patients
    Hemolysis IS PAIN - Isoniazid, Sulfonamides, Primaquine, Aspirin, Ibuprofen, Nitrofurantoin
  316. Drugs causing megaloblastic anemia
    Having a blast with PMS - Phenytoin, Methotrexate, Shots drugs
  317. Drugs causing pulmonary fibrosis
    It's hard to BLAB when you have pulmonary fibrosis - BLeomycin, Amiodarone, Busulfan
  318. Drugs causing focal to massive hepatic necrosis
    Liver HAVAc - Halothane, Acetaminophen, Valproic acid, Mania phalloides
  319. Drugs causing gynecomastia
    Some Drugs Create AwesomE Knockers - Spironolactone, Digitalis, Cimetidine, chronic Alcohol use, Estrogens, Ketoconazole
  320. Drugs causing myopathies
    Fish N CHIPS Give you myopathies - Fibrates, Niacin, Colchicine, Hydroxychloroquine, Interferon alpha, Penicillamine, Statins, Glucocorticoids
  321. Drugs that cause photosensitivity
    SAT for a photo - Sulfonamides, Amiodarone, Tetracycline
  322. Drugs that cause rash (Stevens-Johnson syndrome)
    Bad rash after a PEC SLAPP - Penicillin, Ethosuximide, Carbamazepine, Sulfa drugs, Lamotrigine, Allopurinol, Phenytoin, Phenobarbital
  323. Drugs that cause SLE-like syndrome
    It's not HIPP to have lupus - Hydralazine, INH, Procainamide, Phenytoin
  324. Sulfa drugs
    Popular FACTSSS - Probenacid, Furosemide, Acetazolamide, Celecoxib, Thiazides, Sulfonamide antibiotics, Sulfasalazine, Sulfonylureas
  325. Nifedipine
    Calcium channel blockers, similar to Nitrates in effect (verapamil similar to beta blockers)
  326. Chlorpromazine
    Causes Corneal deposits
  327. Suspensory ligament of the ovaries
    SusPensory ligament susPends ovary to Pelvic wall
  328. Variant ligament
    Ligament of the ovary Patches ovary to Lateral uterus
  329. Imperforate anus
    VACTERL syndrome - Vertebral defects, Anal atresia, Cardiac anomalies, Tracheoesophageal fistula, Esoohageal atresia, Renal anomalies, Limb anomalies (less common than isolated congenital anomalies)
  330. NNRTIs
    -VIR- bind to RT, do not require phosphorylation
  331. Wilsons disease
    Copper is Hella BAD - Ceruloplasmin decrease, Cirrhosis, Corneal deposits, Carcinoma (hepatocellular), Hemolytic anemia, Basal ganga degeneration, Asterixis, Dementia, Dyskinesia, Dysarthria
  332. Esophageal cancer.
    Esophagus is a SAC on A BED - Squamous cell carcinoma risk factors: Alcohol/Achalasia, Cigarettes; Adenocarcinoma: Barrels esophagus, Esophageal web/Esophagitis, Diverticula (Zenkers)
  333. Chronic gastritis (nonerosive)
    AB pairing - pernicious Anemia affects gastric Body, H. pylori Bacteria affects Antrum
  334. Crohns disease
    Think of a FAT GRANny and and old cone SKIPPING down a COBBLESTONE road away from the WRECK (rectal sparing) - creeping fat, noncaseating granulomas, skip lesions, cobblestone mucosa
  335. Turcots syndrome
    TURcot - TURban. FAP + malignant CNS tumor
  336. Epidermis layers
    Californians Like Girls in String Bikinis - stratum Corneum, Lucidum, Granulosum, Spinosum, Basalis
  337. Zona adherins
    CADherins connect to actin - CADherins are Ca2+ dependent ADhesion molecules
  338. Rotator cuff muscles
    SItS - Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, teres minor, Subscapularis
  339. Brachial plexus
    Randy Travis Drinks Cold Beer - Roots, Trunks, Divisions, Cords, Branches
  340. Thenar & Hypothenar eminence
    Both groups of muscles perform the same functions: OAF - Oppose, Abduct, Flex
  341. Interosseous muscles
    DAB PAD - Dorsal interosseous ABduct, Palmar ADduct
  342. Infectious arthritis
    Gonococcal arthritis is an STD - Synovitis (knee), Tenosynovitis (hand), Dermatitis (pustules)
  343. Ataxia telangiectasia
    Mutated ATM gene - Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated. Defect in DNA break repair
  344. CREST syndrome
    Scleroderma (progressive systemic sclerosis) - Calcinosis, Reynolds phenomenon, Esophageal dysmotility, Sclerodactyly, Telangiectasia. AntiCentromere antibody
  345. Lichen Planus
    Pruritic, Purple, Polygonal, Papules
  346. Leukotriene B4
    Neutrophils arrive B4 others - neutrophil chemotactic factor
  347. PGI2
    Platelet Gathering Inhibitor
  348. Infliximab
    INFLIX pain on TNF
  349. Ondansetron
    Keep ON DANCing with ONDANSetron. 5-HT3 antagonist. Antiemetic
  350. Placlitaxel
    PacliTAXel (& other TAXols) - it is TAXing to stay pilymerized. Stuck in metaphase, cannot proceed to anaphase
  351. Dactomycin (actinomycin D)
    dACTinomycin - used for childhood tumors. Children ACT out
  352. Hydroxyurea
    Decreases DNA Synthesis - S phase specific
  353. Class 1 antiarrhythmics
    1a - Double Quarter Pounder, 1b - Lettuce, Tomato, Mayo, 1c - More Fries Please. Disopyramide, Quinidine, Procainamide, Lidocaine, Mexiletine, Tocainide, Moricizine, Flea.IDE, Propafenone
  354. Clinical use of tetracyclines
    VACUUM THe BedRoom - Vibrio cholera, Acne, Chlamydia, Ureaplasma urealitica, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Tularemia, H. pylori, Borrellia burgdorferi, Rickettsia
  355. Clinical use of macrolides
    PUS - Pneumonias (atypical), URIs, STDs (+strep in penicillin allergies & Neisseria)
  356. Preeclampsia
    HELLP syndrome - Hemolysis, Elevated LFTs, Low Platelets
  357. Carcinoid tumor symptoms
    Be FDR - Bronchospasm, Flushing, Diarrhea, Right sided heart valve disease
  358. Ritodrine
    Ritodrine allows the fetus to "return to dreams" - prevents early delivery. Beta2-agonist that relaxes the uterus

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