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A reaction will proced spontaneously when?
The products of the reaction have less free energy than the reactants, therefore the (delta)G < 0.
A reaction will proceed spontaneously when?
The reaction is exergonic
Ae- + B → A + Be-
Which is oxidized and which is reduced?
A is oxidized and B is reduced.
The mechanism in which the end product of a metabolic pathway inhibits an earlier step in the pathway is know as what?
There is a different enzyme for every chemical reaction in the cell. How is this specificity achieved?
by the exact fit of substrate molecules to the active site
Are the ATPs formed by substrate-level phosphorylation or oxidative phosphorylation during glycolysis?
A substance that increases the number of protons (H+) in the mitochondrial matrix (and has no other effect on the cell) would theoretically?
decrease the ATP yield in oxidative phosphorylation
A drug is designed to make the glycolytic pathway more
productive. What part of the cell would the drug need to be delivered to or it to directly affect this pathway?
A drug that increases the number of NADH & FADH2
molecules produced through the citric acid cycle/Krebs cycle and has no other effects on the cell would theoretically be what?
increase the number of ATPs produced per glucose
The citric acid cycle is a “cycle” because:
oxaloacetate is regenerated in each round of the cycle.
The movement of electrons from NADH to O2 by electron transport
has a negative free energy change, drives protons across the mitochondrial inner membrane creating a proton motive force, and results in ATP production by oxidative phosphorylation
A proton ionophore is a substance that creates a proton leak in a membrane. What might you predict that a proton ionophore would do in mitochondria?
Prevent the synthesis of ATP.
 is an isotope of Oxygen. It contains extra what?
Photosystem II strips electrons from chlorophyll and
delivers them to the chloroplast electron transport (cytochrome) chain. Where do the replacement electrons come from?
Where does the Calvin cycle take place?
stroma of the chloroplast
In a plant cell, where are the ATP synthetase complexes located?
thylakoid membrane and inner membrane of the mitochondria
What key component is necessary for photosystems
to harvest light?
Which of the following are products of the light reactions
of photosynthesis that are utilized in the Calvin cycle?
ATP and NADPH
The pyrimidine bases in DNA are what?
cytosine and thymine
A repeating DNA sequence at the end of chromosomes
that prevents them from losing base pair sequences at their ends and from fusing together is?
Anticodon is the term applied to what?
the part of the tRNA that interacts with the codon
Which of the following may be involved in combinatorial
control of eukaryotic gene expression
A) Activator proteins
B) Repressor proteins
C) DNA methylation
D) Alteration of chromatin structure
E) All of the above
E) all of the above
Histone acetyltransferase and ATP-dependent chromatin
remodeling enzymes convert the chromatin from the closed conformation to the open conformation. What effect does this have on transcription?
RNA polymerase is able to bind and initiate transcription of the gene
If a mutation damaged the enhancer regulatory element near a eukaryotic gene promoter, how would this affect the transcription of the gene?
The rate of transcription would be decreased
In eukaryotic cells histones bind to DNA to form chromatin. What is the basic organizational unit of
The nucleotide sequences that make up DNA encode information that dictates three major features of the cell. Which of the following choices is one of those roles?
the sequence of amino acids in proteins
Norepinephrine is a hormone that is released into the blood when the adrenal gland is stimulated by the sympathetic preganglionic neurons. What type of signaling effect is does this represent?