Past Exam 2 Questions

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Past Exam 2 Questions
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2012-05-02 02:33:32
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Exam 2 quesiton for Biology 212
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  1. A reaction will proced spontaneously when?
    The products of the reaction have less free energy than the reactants, therefore the (delta)G < 0.
  2. A reaction will proceed spontaneously when?
    The reaction is exergonic
  3. Ae- + B → A + Be-
    Which is oxidized and which is reduced?
    A is oxidized and B is reduced.
  4. The mechanism in which the end product of a metabolic pathway inhibits an earlier step in the pathway is know as what?
    feedback inhibition
  5. There is a different enzyme for every chemical reaction in the cell. How is this specificity achieved?
    by the exact fit of substrate molecules to the active site
  6. Are the ATPs formed by substrate-level phosphorylation or oxidative phosphorylation during glycolysis?
    Substrate-level
  7. A substance that increases the number of protons (H+) in the mitochondrial matrix (and has no other effect on the cell) would theoretically?
    decrease the ATP yield in oxidative phosphorylation
  8. A drug is designed to make the glycolytic pathway more
    productive. What part of the cell would the drug need to be delivered to or it to directly affect this pathway?
    cytosol/cytoplasm
  9. A drug that increases the number of NADH & FADH2
    molecules produced through the citric acid cycle/Krebs cycle and has no other effects on the cell would theoretically be what?
    increase the number of ATPs produced per glucose
  10. The citric acid cycle is a “cycle” because:
    oxaloacetate is regenerated in each round of the cycle.
  11. The movement of electrons from NADH to O2 by electron transport
    has a negative free energy change, drives protons across the mitochondrial inner membrane creating a proton motive force, and results in ATP production by oxidative phosphorylation
  12. A proton ionophore is a substance that creates a proton leak in a membrane. What might you predict that a proton ionophore would do in mitochondria?
    Prevent the synthesis of ATP.
  13. [180] is an isotope of Oxygen. It contains extra what?
    neutrons
  14. Photosystem II strips electrons from chlorophyll and
    delivers them to the chloroplast electron transport (cytochrome) chain. Where do the replacement electrons come from?
    splitting H2O
  15. Where does the Calvin cycle take place?
    stroma of the chloroplast
  16. In a plant cell, where are the ATP synthetase complexes located?
    thylakoid membrane and inner membrane of the mitochondria
  17. What key component is necessary for photosystems
    to harvest light?
    pigment molecules
  18. Which of the following are products of the light reactions
    of photosynthesis that are utilized in the Calvin cycle?
    ATP and NADPH
  19. The pyrimidine bases in DNA are what?
    cytosine and thymine
  20. A repeating DNA sequence at the end of chromosomes
    that prevents them from losing base pair sequences at their ends and from fusing together is?
    a telomere
  21. Anticodon is the term applied to what?
    the part of the tRNA that interacts with the codon
  22. Which of the following may be involved in combinatorial
    control of eukaryotic gene expression
    A) Activator proteins
    B) Repressor proteins
    C) DNA methylation
    D) Alteration of chromatin structure
    E) All of the above
    E) all of the above
  23. Histone acetyltransferase and ATP-dependent chromatin
    remodeling enzymes convert the chromatin from the closed conformation to the open conformation. What effect does this have on transcription?
    RNA polymerase is able to bind and initiate transcription of the gene
  24. If a mutation damaged the enhancer regulatory element near a eukaryotic gene promoter, how would this affect the transcription of the gene?
    The rate of transcription would be decreased
  25. In eukaryotic cells histones bind to DNA to form chromatin. What is the basic organizational unit of
    chromatin?
    nucleosome
  26. The nucleotide sequences that make up DNA encode information that dictates three major features of the cell. Which of the following choices is one of those roles?
    the sequence of amino acids in proteins
  27. Norepinephrine is a hormone that is released into the blood when the adrenal gland is stimulated by the sympathetic preganglionic neurons. What type of signaling effect is does this represent?
    endocrine

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