BIO 347: Brain Anatomy Functions

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  1. Cingulate gyrus
    • Emotions
    • Motivated responses
    • Cognitive processing
    • Pain perception (anterior portion)
  2. Corpus callosum
    Connects left and right hemisphere
  3. Septum pellucidum
    Tissue that separates left and right lateral ventricles
  4. Lateral ventricle
    • Holds cerebrospinal fluid
    • Cavity in right and left cerebral hemispheres
  5. Fornix
    Projects axons from the hippocampus to the septal nuclei and hypothalamus
  6. Anterior commissure
    • Mediates emotions
    • Connects the right and left hemispheres
  7. Thalamus
    Major relay center for all inputs and outputs
  8. Massa intermedia
    Connects adjacent thalamic nuclei in the right and left hemispheres
  9. Third ventricle
    • Holds cerebrospinal fluid
    • Cavity that surrounds thalamus and hypothalamus
  10. Hypothalamus
    • Controls autonomic and endocrine functions
    • Mediates eating, sleeping and reproduction
  11. Mammillary bodies
    Memory processing
  12. Pineal gland
    Regulates circadian rhythms
  13. Stria medullaris
    Fiber tract that projects from amygdala and runs along dorsal suface of the thalamus and enters the habenula
  14. Habenula
    • Mediates release of monoamines dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin
    • Mediates pain processing, reproductive behavior, feeding, sleep-wake cycles, stress response, and learning
    • Negative feedback or negative rewards (lateral habenula)
  15. Posterior commissure
    • Connects the right and left hemispheres
    • Important for bilateral pupillary reflexes
  16. Superior colliculus
    Mediates directing eye movement, saccades and tracking objects
  17. Inferior colliculus
    Mediates determing the location of auditory stimuli in the environment
  18. Cerebral aqueduct
    • Conveys cerebrospinal fluid from third to fourth ventricles
    • Divides tectum from tegmentum
  19. Tegmentum
    Involved in many unconscious homeostatic and reflexive pathways, including reticular fomation (conscious awareness, arousal), the periaqueductal gray matter (pain), the red nucleus (motor), the substantia nigra (motor), and ventral tegmental area (motivated behaviors).
  20. Cerebellum
    Mediates smooth movement, coordination, postural balance, learning and motor memory, language, mental imagery, attention to novelty, and shifting and orienting attention.
  21. Fourth ventricle
    • Contains cerebrospinal fluid
    • Cavity underneath the cerebellum
  22. Pons
    • Relays information to and from the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and spinal cord.
    • Inhibitory signals to prevent movement in REM sleep
  23. Medulla
    Regulates vital autonomic processes such as heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration.
  24. Hippocampus
    Mediates memory processing
  25. Caudate
    Mediates movement, affective behavior, learning, reward, and other cognitive processes
  26. Frontal lobe
    Mediates motor and executive functions, language
  27. Lentiform nucleus
    Mediates movement and some features of cognition
  28. Cerebellar peduncles
    Connects cerebellum to rest of CNS
  29. Septal area
    Involved in motivated behaviors
  30. Longitudinal fissure
    Sulcus separating left and right cerebral hemispheres
  31. Corona radiata
    Provides most inputs and outputs for the cerebral cortex
  32. External capsule
    Fiber tract that connects putamen in teh basal gangli system to the cortex
  33. Olfactory tubercle
    Area between medial and lateral olfactory tracts
  34. Putamen
    Mediates movement and learning
  35. Nucleus accumbens
    • Mediates acticipation of rewards associated with motivated behaviors
    • Appears to play a role in emotions
  36. Globus pallidus
    Mediates movement and some features of cognition
  37. Internal capsule
    Course through striatum of the basal ganglia system
  38. Choroid plexus
    • Produces cerebrospinal fluid from blood
    • Regulates pressure
  39. Optic chiasm
    Formed by optic nerves that partially decussate to continue on as optic tract fibers in visual system
  40. Pulvinar
    Participates in vision and eye movement
  41. Fimbria
    Fiber projections from hippocampal neurons that converge to form the fornix
  42. Optic tract
    Optic nerves projecting from the retinas that partially decusssate at the optic chiasm.
  43. Amygdala
    Mediate behaviors like identifying the emotional salience of stimuli
  44. Mammilothalamic tract
    White matter fibers projecting from the mammillary bodies to the thalamus
  45. Substantia niagra
    • Sends projections to the thalamus and superior colliculus
    • Contains dopaminergic projections to the striatum and cerebral cortex
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BIO 347: Brain Anatomy Functions
Study guide for brain anatomy for Neurobiology
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