Patho chapter 19, Flu & terms

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tville01
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151660
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Patho chapter 19, Flu & terms
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2012-05-07 13:02:47
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Patho chapter 19 Flu terms
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Patho chapter 19, Flu & terms
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  1. Define Bronchoscopy
    using a bronchoscope to see the tracheobronchial tree
  2. How are respiratory specimens obtained
    • aspiration of bronchial secreations
    • bronchial washing(injecting fluid & retreiving fluid)
    • biopsy
  3. What are the diagnostic tools for respiratory disease
    • Bronchoscopy
    • Specimens
    • Radiography(Chest X-ray, CT scan)
    • fluroscopy(see lungs during breathing)
    • ABG
    • Spirometry
    • Sputum examination(gram Stain, C&S)
  4. What is the partial pressure of O2?
    95-100 mm Hg
  5. What is the partial pressure of CO2?
    35-42 mm Hg
  6. Why are culture and sensetivity test done(C&S)?
    to determine causitive pathogen and appropriate antibiotics
  7. Enterance of air into the pleural cavity
    pneumothorax
  8. Pneumothorax leads to
    atelectasis
  9. What is the etiology of pneumothorax
    • spontaneous
    • idiopathic
    • trauma
    • surgically induced(abdominal surgery)
    • mechanical ventilator
    • emphysema patients develop belbs
    • malignant tumor
  10. Collapsed lung
    atelectasis
  11. What is the etiology of atelectasis
    • pneumothorax
    • pus in plueral cavity
    • obstruction of bronchi
    • lungs can't infalte
  12. Who is more susceptible to influenza
    children and elderly
  13. When does flu season occur
    Nov-Feb
  14. What is the etiology of influenza
    Virus- myxovirus influenzae
  15. Describe the myxovirus influenzae virus
    • RNA
    • envelope(lipids & proteins)
    • spikes with enzymes (H and N)
    • made of protein so able to mutate
  16. How does the Hemagglutinin spike on the myxovirus influenzae help the virus
    adherence to host receptor
  17. How does the Neuraminidase spike on the myxovirus influenzae help the virus
    entery and exit of host cell
  18. What type of influenza is most prevelant
    A
  19. Which type of influenza undergoes slow antigenic changes
    B
  20. Which type of influenza is rare
    C
  21. Why is influenza difficult to control
    • Undergoes antigenic changes
    • leads to new strains
    • antibodies not effective on new strains
    • vaccines are based on previous yr virus
  22. How is the influenza virus transmitted
    • droplets
    • fomites
    • poor circulation
  23. Small droplets usually bypass the respiratory tract and go straight to the
    lungs
  24. What is the incubation period for the influenza
    • 1-4 days
    • 2 days average
  25. Explain the pathophysiology of Influenza
    • virus effects respiratory mucousa
    • causes inflammation & necrosis
    • pseudostratified columnar & virus sheds into secreations
    • necrosis= increased chances of bacterial infection
  26. What are the signs of influenza
    • fatigue
    • muscle ache
    • fever
    • cough
    • stuffy nose
    • dry/scratchy/sore throat
  27. How is influenza diagnosed
    • community outbreaks
    • signs and syptoms
    • nose and throat cultures
    • serum antibody titers
    • rapid antigen detection test
  28. What is the treatment for influenza
    • self-limiting
    • bedrest
    • fluids
    • keep warm
    • tamiflu, relenza, amantadine
  29. what are the complications of influenza
    • pneumonia
    • secondary bacterial infections
    • reye's syndrome
  30. What is the prognosis for influenza
    good without complications
  31. How can you prevent influenza
    innoculation of a vaccine
  32. How does staying warm help with influenza recovery
    helps maintain core body temp, which inhibits viral replication
  33. What are types of secondary bacterial infections that occur due to influenza
    • sinusitis
    • otitis
    • bronchitis
  34. What is Reye's syndrome associated with
    • taking asprin when fever is present, and person is under 19
    • effects brain, liver, causes coma or death or irreversible changes
  35. What are the 2 types of flu vaccine
    • injection
    • nasal
  36. Which flu vaccine uses weakened live viruses, that are cold adapted and temp sensetive(allows virus to stay in nose and throat, not lower respiratory tract)
    nasal spray
  37. What influenza strains does a typical influenza shot contain
    • 2 A(H3N2 , & H1N1)
    • 1 B
  38. What type of respiratory infection is influenza and
    Upper Respiratory

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