Bio 2114 Lab Final

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  1. Urinary System
    removes nitrogenous wastes from the body
  2. Kidneys
    • maintain electrolyte acis - base 7 fluid balances of the blood
    • major homeostatic organ
    • filters & processes blood
  3. Renal Arteries
    diverge from descending aorta
  4. Renal veins
    drain the kidneys (circulatory drainage)
  5. ureters (2)
    • DRAIN URINE FROM KIDNEYS & MOVE by peristalsis to bladder
    • largest & has thickest wall
  6. bladder
    temporary urine storage
  7. urethra
    • drains the bladder
    • males-serves the urinary & reproductive system
    • females- much shorter
  8. renal capsule
    smooth, transparent membrane that adhere to the surface of the kidney
  9. renal hilu
    indented region of kidney
  10. kidney cortex
    outermost region- lighter color
  11. medullary region
    middle region - dark, reddish brown color
  12. renal columns
    areas of tissue - more like the cortex - seperates the medullary pyramids
  13. renal pelvis
    • innermost region
    • hold calyces
  14. normal characteristics of urine
    • clear pale to deep yellow
    • yellow is due to urochrome-pigment from body's breakdown of hemoglobin
    • slightly aromatic if fresh-ammonia if left sitting out
    • pH from 4.5-8.0, average 6.0, slighlty acidic
    • specific gravity - 1.001-1.030
    • dilute urine is 1.001,occurs when drink a lot of water, take diuretics or have chronic kidney failure
    • high specific gravity - limited fluid intake, fever, kidney inflammation (pyelonephritis), can crystallize causing stones or renal calculi
  15. abnormal urinary constituents
    glucose, ketone bodies, blood proteins (primarily albumin), red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells (pus) & bile
  16. glycosuria
    • glucose in urine
    • excessive intake of sugary food
    • diabetes mellitus
  17. ketonuria
    • ketone bodies
    • starvation, diabetes mellitus when coupled with glycosuria
  18. proteinuria (albuminuria)
    • proteins
    • physical exertion, pregnancy, glomerulonephritis, hypertension
  19. pyuria
    • pus (WBC's & bacteria)
    • urinary tract infection
  20. hematuria
    • red blood cells
    • bleeding in the urinary tract (due to trauma, kidney stones, infection)
  21. hemoglobinuria
    • hemoglobin
    • transfusion reaction, hemolytic anemia
  22. bilirubinuria
    • bile pigments
    • liver disease (hepatitis)
  23. pH Test (urine)
    • normal pH is 6.0 which is slightly acidic
    • low pH (<4.5) high protein diet, cranberry juice, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus
    • high pH (>8.0) diet rich in vegetables, dairy products, severe anemia
  24. specific gravity
    • low specific gravity (<1.010) increased fluid intake, severe renal damage
    • high specific gravity (>1.025) decreased fluid intake, loss of fluids, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, severe anemia
  25. glucose
    • a large meal
    • uncontrolled diabetes mellitus
  26. protein (urine)
    • high protein diet
    • severe anemia
    • tests use biuret agent
  27. glomerulus
    tangled capillary knot that filters fluid from the blood into the lumen of the renal tubule
  28. renal tubule
    process fluid (filtrate) from glomerulus
  29. glomerular capsule
    • beginning of renal tubule
    • surrounds glomerulus & funnels filtrate to rest of renal tubule
  30. renal corpuscle
    glomerulus & glomerular capsule
  31. afferent arteriole
    feeds the glomerular capillary bed
  32. efferent arteriole
    drains the glomerular capillary bed
  33. nephron
    • performs 3 functions to process filtrate into urine
    • -glomerular filtration
    • -tubular reabsorption
    • -tubular secretion
  34. glomerular filtration
    • passive process in which fluid passes from the lumen of the glomerular capillay into the glomerular capsule of the renal tubule
    • moves from high to low - like diffusion
  35. tubular reabsorption
    moves most of the filtrate back into the blood, leaving principally salt water plus the wastes in the lumen of the tubule
  36. tubular secretion
    the reverse of tubular reabsorption & is a process by which the kidneys can rid the blood of additional unwanted substances such as creatinine & ammonia
  37. effect of flow tube radius on glomerular filtration
    • glomerular filtration rate increases as the afferent radius is increased
    • glomerular pressure increases as the afferent radius is increased
    • increased efferent radius would decrease glomerular filtration rate
    • decreased efferent radius would increase glomerular filtration rate
  38. effects of pressure on glomerular filtration
    • glomerular filtration keeps increasing when beaker pressure increased
    • glomerular pressure increased as beaker pressure was increased
  39. simulating urine formation
    • urine concentration increased as the gradient concentration was increased
    • volume of urine decreases
  40. glucose carrier proteins on glucose reabsorption
    • glucose in urine decreased as the number of glucose carriers increased
    • excess glucose is eliminated in urine
  41. effects of hormones on urine formation
    • potassium increases with ADH
    • the effects of aldosterone & ADH are antagonistic
  42. acid base balance
    pH of a body's fluids
  43. acid
    substance that releases H+ in solutions (such as body fluids)
  44. base
    • often a hydroxyl ion or bicarbonate ion
    • substance that binds to H+
  45. pH
    • denotes hydrogen ion (H+) concentration in body fluids
    • blood & tissue fluids normally have pH value between 7.35 - 7.45
  46. 2 major physiological buffering systems
    • renal - slower
    • respiratory
  47. acidosis
    pH falls below 7.35
  48. alkalosis
    pH rises above 7.45
  49. respiratory acidosis/alkalosis
    respiratory system accumulating too much or too little CO2 in the blood
  50. metabolic acidosis/alkalosis
    all other conditions of acidosis/alkalosis
  51. renal system compensation
    • normal PCO2 & pH levels, the level of H+ in urine is normal
    • HCO3 - normal in urine
  52. renal response to respiratory acidosis
    of PCO2 values are higher than normal, blood pH will be lower than normal
  53. causes of metabolic acidosis
    • ketonacidosis - diabetes mellitus
    • salicylate poisoning - too much aspirin or oil of wintergreen
    • ingestion of too much alcohol
    • diarrhea
    • strenous excercise - build up of lactic acid from muscle metabolism
  54. causes of metabolic alkalosis
    • alkali ingestion - antacids/bicarbonate
    • vomiting
    • constipation
  55. dominant genes
    • express themselves even when just one copy is present
    • uppercase letter
  56. recessive genes
    • express themselves when 2 copies are present
    • lowercase letter
  57. homzygous
    individual with 2 dominant or 2 recessive genes from a trait
  58. heterozygous
    individual with one dominant or one recessive gene
  59. genotype
    genetic makeup of an individual
  60. phenotype
    physical characteristic that results from the individual genotype
  61. pedigree
    diagram showing the transmission of a genetic trait through several generations of a family
  62. punnet square
    diagram to predict all the ways genes can combine during fertilization
  63. meiosis (reduction division)
    • reduces the number if chromosomes in gametes to 1/2 the number contained in the parent cell. Haploid (n)
    • PMAT I
  64. eukaryotes
    cells that contain a nucleus
  65. DNA
    genetic material coils to form chromosomes
  66. daughter cells
    formed through meiosis I & then proceed to second meiotic division
  67. tetraploid
  68. homologous chromosomes
    matched pairs
  69. crossing over
    parts of chromosomes exchanged
  70. spindle
    • metaphase I
    • tetrads align at the equator of each cell
  71. anaphase I
    sister chromatids stay together
  72. telophase I & cytokinesis I
    cleavage furrow pinches inward near the equator of the cell to form 2 daughter cells
  73. prophase II
    nucleus membrane disappears as each daughter cell prepares for division
  74. metaphase II
    spindle forms & pair of sister chromatids align at the equator of the cell
  75. anaphase II
    sister chromatids seperate during anaphase II
  76. telophase II & cytokenisis II
    2 diploid daughter cells formed in the first division are physically divided into to haploid daughter cells
  77. primary spermatocyte
    male produces 4 haploid sperm from each diploid
  78. primary oocyte
    • divides 2x to reduce the number of chromosomes from diploid to haploid
    • the unequal division yields only one egg & up to 3 smaller remnants called polar bodies
  79. mitosis
    eukaryotic cell seperates the chromosome in its cell nucleus into 2 identical sets, in 2 seperate nuclei
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Bio 2114 Lab Final
lab final
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