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2012-05-11 00:30:15
Female Reproductive

Female Reproductive
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  1. Genetic vs Phenotypic Sex.

    -What is sex based on?
    -When is sex determined?

    What is phenotypic sex?
    • Genetic Sex:
    • -Sex based on sex chromosomes
    • -XX: female; XY: male
    • -Determined @ fertilization

    • Phenotypic Sex
    • -Appearance of internal/external genetalia
  2. Sexually Indifferent Stage (weeks 5-6)
    (see slide)

    -Mesonephros (temporary kidney); function?
    -Cloaca (sewer); collections system
    -Genital ridge: what does this become?

    Which degenerates?
    Mesonephros: clears waste products (temp. kidney); uses a duct to drain into Cloaca

    Genital ridge: becomes gonads.

    Degenerates: Mesonephros degenerates & leaves behind mesonephros ducts which attach to the gonads.
  3. What 4 parts of the Male reproductive organs are derived from the Mesonephros duct? (at birth)

    Females do not have Mesonephros, only Paranephros.
    • 1) Efferent ductules
    • 2) Epididymis
    • 3) Ductus deferens
    • 4) Seminal vesicle
  4. What are Homologous structures?

    *general characteristics that have common features

    Ovaries =
    Clitoris =
    Labia Majora =
    Labia Minora =
    Uterus =
    Bulb of Vestibule =
    Ovarian ligament & round ligament of uterus =
    • Ovaries: testis
    • Clitoris: penis
    • l. majora: scrotum
    • l. minora: penile urethra
    • uterus: male utriculus
    • bulb of vestibule: bulb of penis
    • ovarian/round ligament: gubernaculum testis
  5. What is the Perineum? (can refer to slide)
    -lithotomy position (back on floor, legs spread)

    (made of 3 distinguished points)
    A diamond shaped area demarcated by the Pubic Symphysis, Ischial Tuberosities, & Coccyx.
  6. Pelvic Viscera & Perineum of Female.

    What is the vesicouterine pouch?

    What is the rectouterine pouch?
    Vesicouterine pouch: space between bladder and uterus.

    Rectouterine pouch: between uterus & rectum.
  7. What is the adnexa? (contained of 3 structures)

    (structures atttached to the uterus)

    Mnemonic: OUR
    • 1) Round ligament
    • 2) uterine (follopian) tube
    • 3) ovary
  8. Posterior View of uterus & associated structures (adnexa)

    Where does fertilization usually occur?

    Isthmus, ampulla, or infundibulum?
    Distal 1/3 of uterine tube (smooth muscle)

    Ampulla of uterus!
  9. What is the Broad Ligament?
    (hint: covers 3 parts of female reproductive organs)

    What are the 3 named parts?
    (hint: meso..)
    The peritoneal membrane covering uterus, ovarian tubes & ovaries.

    • 1) Mesoslpinx: part of broad ligament to uterine tube.
    • -"salpnx" = trumpet, which is what the uterine resembles.

    2) Mesovarium: part of broad ligament to the ovary

    • 3) Mesometrium: biggest part of broad ligament.
    • -"metrium" = uterus
  10. Important ligaments supporting the ovary & the superior part of the uterus, #1.

    Define the Ovarian Ligament.
    A fibrous band of connective tissue connecting the ovary to uterus.
  11. Important ligaments supporting the ovary & the superior part of the uterus, #2.

    What is the Suspensory Ligament of the Ovary?
    A lateral continuation of broad ligament, anchoring ovary to lateral wall of the pelvis, and containing the ovarian vessels.
  12. Important ligaments supporting the ovary & the superior part of the uterus, #3.

    What is the Round Ligament of Uterus?
    The remnant of gubernaculum extending from the uterus to the labia majora via the inguinal canal

    *Course is identical to the spermatic cord.
  13. Ovary.

    Name the 2 functions of the ovary.
    1) Produces the female gametes, ova (oocytes), by oogenesis.

    2) Synthesizes & secretes female steroid hormones, estrogen & progesterone
  14. Oogenesis.

    What is oogenesis?

    Under what 2 hormones is it under the control of?

    What is mitosis and meiosis?
    The process of producing female germ cells (oocytes)

    • Hormones:
    • 1) FSH
    • 2) LH

    Mitosis: cell division producing 2 equal daughter cells (2n to 2n)

    Meiosis: cell division producing 4 daughter cells (4n to 1n), but only 1 functional cell.
  15. Structure of the Ovary.

    The ovary consists of what 2 parts? Define them.

    These parts are surrounded by a covering called the _____ _____.
    1) medulla: middle of ovary, containing blood vessels, nerves & lymphatics.

    2) cortex: outer part of the ovary, contains follicles & is where folliculogenesis occurs.

    Covering called the Tunica Albuginea.
  16. The ovary is covered by a layer of what type of epithelium? It is continuous w/ the Peritoneal membrane.

    (hint: where ovarian cancer usually begins)
    Covered by a layer of Germinal Epithelium.
  17. Cell Types of the Ovarian Cortex
    -The function of these various cell types will become apparent in the description of folliculogenesis, ovulation, & the luteal phase below.

    Define each:
    1) Oogonia
    2) Oocytes
    3) Follicular Cells
    4) Theca cells
    5) Luteal cells
    1) Oogonia: mitotic cells of the ovary (there are no oogonia in the ovary at birth or beyond)

    2) Oocytes: meiotic cells, producing daughter cells (4n-1n), w/ unequal distribution of cytoplasm between them.

    • 3) Follicular Cells: surround oocyte & create the boundaries of the follicle.
    • *cells surrounding the oocyte & lining the follicle internally as it develops are called, Granulosa cells.

    • 4) Theca cells: cells on the outer boundary of the follicle derived from the ovarian stroma.
    • *Granulosa & theca cells work together in the synthesis of Estrogen.

    • 5) Luteal cells: comprise the Corpus Luteum and are derived from follicular cells after ovulation.
    • *Makes Progesterone.