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Genetic vs Phenotypic Sex.
-What is sex based on?
-When is sex determined?
What is phenotypic sex?
- Genetic Sex:
- -Sex based on sex chromosomes
- -XX: female; XY: male
- -Determined @ fertilization
- Phenotypic Sex
- -Appearance of internal/external genetalia
Sexually Indifferent Stage (weeks 5-6)
-Mesonephros (temporary kidney); function?
-Cloaca (sewer); collections system
-Genital ridge: what does this become?
Mesonephros: clears waste products (temp. kidney); uses a duct to drain into Cloaca
Genital ridge: becomes gonads.
Degenerates: Mesonephros degenerates & leaves behind mesonephros ducts which attach to the gonads.
What 4 parts of the Male reproductive organs are derived from the Mesonephros duct? (at birth)
Females do not have Mesonephros, only Paranephros.
- 1) Efferent ductules
- 2) Epididymis
- 3) Ductus deferens
- 4) Seminal vesicle
What are Homologous structures?
*general characteristics that have common features
Labia Majora =
Labia Minora =
Bulb of Vestibule =
Ovarian ligament & round ligament of uterus =
- Ovaries: testis
- Clitoris: penis
- l. majora: scrotum
- l. minora: penile urethra
- uterus: male utriculus
- bulb of vestibule: bulb of penis
- ovarian/round ligament: gubernaculum testis
What is the Perineum? (can refer to slide)
-lithotomy position (back on floor, legs spread)
(made of 3 distinguished points)
A diamond shaped area demarcated by the Pubic Symphysis, Ischial Tuberosities, & Coccyx.
Pelvic Viscera & Perineum of Female.
What is the vesicouterine pouch?
What is the rectouterine pouch?
Vesicouterine pouch: space between bladder and uterus.
Rectouterine pouch: between uterus & rectum.
What is the adnexa? (contained of 3 structures)
(structures atttached to the uterus)
- 1) Round ligament
- 2) uterine (follopian) tube
- 3) ovary
Posterior View of uterus & associated structures (adnexa)
Where does fertilization usually occur?
Isthmus, ampulla, or infundibulum?
Distal 1/3 of uterine tube (smooth muscle)
Ampulla of uterus!
What is the Broad Ligament?
(hint: covers 3 parts of female reproductive organs)
What are the 3 named parts?
The peritoneal membrane covering uterus, ovarian tubes & ovaries.
- 1) Mesoslpinx: part of broad ligament to uterine tube.
- -"salpnx" = trumpet, which is what the uterine resembles.
2) Mesovarium: part of broad ligament to the ovary
- 3) Mesometrium: biggest part of broad ligament.
- -"metrium" = uterus
Important ligaments supporting the ovary & the superior part of the uterus, #1.
Define the Ovarian Ligament.
A fibrous band of connective tissue connecting the ovary to uterus.
Important ligaments supporting the ovary & the superior part of the uterus, #2.
What is the Suspensory Ligament of the Ovary?
A lateral continuation of broad ligament, anchoring ovary to lateral wall of the pelvis, and containing the ovarian vessels.
Important ligaments supporting the ovary & the superior part of the uterus, #3.
What is the Round Ligament of Uterus?
The remnant of gubernaculum extending from the uterus to the labia majora via the inguinal canal
*Course is identical to the spermatic cord.
Name the 2 functions of the ovary.
1) Produces the female gametes, ova (oocytes), by oogenesis.
2) Synthesizes & secretes female steroid hormones, estrogen & progesterone
What is oogenesis?
Under what 2 hormones is it under the control of?
What is mitosis and meiosis?
The process of producing female germ cells (oocytes)
Mitosis: cell division producing 2 equal daughter cells (2n to 2n)
Meiosis: cell division producing 4 daughter cells (4n to 1n), but only 1 functional cell.
Structure of the Ovary.
The ovary consists of what 2 parts? Define them.
These parts are surrounded by a covering called the _____ _____.
1) medulla: middle of ovary, containing blood vessels, nerves & lymphatics.
2) cortex: outer part of the ovary, contains follicles & is where folliculogenesis occurs.
Covering called the Tunica Albuginea.
The ovary is covered by a layer of what type of epithelium? It is continuous w/ the Peritoneal membrane.
(hint: where ovarian cancer usually begins)
Covered by a layer of Germinal Epithelium.
Cell Types of the Ovarian Cortex
-The function of these various cell types will become apparent in the description of folliculogenesis, ovulation, & the luteal phase below.
3) Follicular Cells
4) Theca cells
5) Luteal cells
1) Oogonia: mitotic cells of the ovary (there are no oogonia in the ovary at birth or beyond)
2) Oocytes: meiotic cells, producing daughter cells (4n-1n), w/ unequal distribution of cytoplasm between them.
- 3) Follicular Cells: surround oocyte & create the boundaries of the follicle.
- *cells surrounding the oocyte & lining the follicle internally as it develops are called, Granulosa cells.
- 4) Theca cells: cells on the outer boundary of the follicle derived from the ovarian stroma.
- *Granulosa & theca cells work together in the synthesis of Estrogen.
- 5) Luteal cells: comprise the Corpus Luteum and are derived from follicular cells after ovulation.
- *Makes Progesterone.