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What would constitute a group?
Two or more individuals who are connected by and within social relationships
What type of group is a small long-term group such as family and friends that are characterized by face-to-face interaction, solidarity, and high level of member-to-group interdependence and identification?
What type of group consists of a relatively small number of individuals who interact with one another over an extended period of time, such as work groups, clubs, and congregations?
What Type of group consists of a relatively large aggregation or group of individuals who display similarities in actions and outlook.
What type of group consists of an aggregation of people or things that share some common attribute or are related in some way?
When individuals know they are being studied, people are likely to change their behavior. What is this effect called?
What is the group that is responsible for reviewing research procedures to be sure they are consistent with ethical guidelines called?
Institutional Review Board (IRB)
A person with a tradition, ideology, or personal orientation that emphasizes the primacy of the group or community rather than each individual would be considered what?
What theory suggests that there is a "we" component of the self-concept that includes all those qualities attendant to relationships with other people, groups, and society?
Social Identity Theory
What are the Big Five traits?
What is the desire to be part of a group and to be accepted called?
What theory of group formation emphasizes compatibility among three basic social motives: inclusion, control, and affection?
Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation (FIRO)
What Theory suggests that people develop styles of relating to others in childhood that follow them into adulthood?
What theory did Leon Festinger propose?
He suggested people compare themselves to others (Social Comparison) to get the information they need.
What is the theory that suggests people evaluate the accuracy of their personal beliefs and attitudes by comparing themselves to others?
Social Comparison Theory
What did researchers identify as the three principles that influence attraction to a group?
- Proximity - tendency for individuals to form interpersonal relations with those who are close by
- Similarity - tendency to affiliate with or be attracted to those who share similar values, interests, and attitudes
- Reciprocity - tendency for liking to be met with liking in return
What is the reciprocity principle?
The tendency for liking to be met with liking in return.
What are the different Components of Cohesion?
- Social Cohesion - Attraction of members to one another and to the group as a whole
- Task Cohesion - The capacity to perform successfully as a coordinated unit and as part of the group
- Perceived Cohesion - The construed coherence of the group; sense of belonging to the group; unity
- Emotional Cohesion - Emotional intensity of the group and individuals when in the group
What is the difference between an open group and a closed group?
Open group's boundaries are so permeable that membership varies considerably whereas Closed group's boundaries are closed and fixed keeping membership from varying much if at all.
What are the 5 Stages of Group Development?
- Forming - getting to know each other; awkward/tense communication
- Storming - Conflict occurs as disagreements over differences rise
- Norming - Creation of norms and expectations as group becomes more united and cohesive
- Performing - Doing the task for which the group was created for
- Adjourning - Completion of task and termination of roles
What are the emergent, consensual standards that regulate group members' behaviors?
What are the two types of Roles?
- Relationship Roles &
- Task Roles
What are the interpersonal processes that change thoughts, feelings, or behaviors of others?
What did Solomon Asch study?
Which experiment is he known for?
- He studied Conformity
- He is known for his study on Conformity where he had people judge size of lines.
What Theory proposes that the impact of any source of influence depends upon the strength, the immediacy, and number of people present?
Social Impact Theory
What is the capacity to influence others, even when these others try to resist influence?
There are sources of social power in groups that include one's degree of control over rewards and punishments, authority in the group, attractiveness, experitise, and access to and control over information needed by group members. What are they called?
What is the tendency to overestimate the causal influence of dispositional factors and underemphasize the causal influence of situation factors
Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE)
What is leadership?
Guidance of others in their pursuits, often by organizing, directing, coordinating, supporting, and motivating their efforts; also, the ability to lead others.
What qualities in a person influence leadership emergence?
- Emotional Intelligence: Perceive emotion in self and others, use that information productively.
- Skillful experience
- Active within their group (Quantity must include quality)
- Physical Appearance: Older, taller, heavier, physically fit.
- Not as likely to be a minority
- More often male
What type of leadership uses a method of inspiring others to lead them toward higher levels of motivation, confidence, and satisfaction by uniting them in the pursuit of shared, challenging, goals and changing their beliefs, values, and needs?
What is the improvement in task performance that occurs when people work in the presence of other people
What is Robert Zajonc known for?
- Differentiating between dominant and non-dominant responsesDrive Theory
- Work on Social facilitation
What is Max Ringelmann known for?
- Studied Process loss in groups
- Theorized the Ringelmann effect of process loss.
What Theory maintains that the presence of others evokes a generalized drive state characterized by increased readiness and arousal?
- Drive Theorypeople's presence "drive" others to perform.
What is the tendency for people to become less productive when they work with others which increases as group size increases, but at a gradually decreasing rate?
The Ringelmann effect
What is the reduction of individual effort exerted when people work in groups compared to when they work alone
What would constitute a conjunctive task?
A task that can only be complete if all group members contribute
What is the conceptual analysis of the steps or processes that groups generally follow when making a decision, with a focus on the intended purpose of each step or process in the overall decision-making sequence
Functional Theory of Group-Decision Making
What is the Risky-Shift Phenomenom?
The tendency for groups to make riskier decisions than individuals.
What is a strong concurrence-seeking tendency in cohesive groups that interferes with effective group decision making?
What is an organized, task focused group called?
What are the characteristics that are needed to complete a job or task successfully called? (Hint: looking for an acronym)
What is the dispositional tendency to respond to conflict settings in a particular way?
Social Values Orientation
What bargaining strategy that begins with cooperation, but then imitates the other person's choice so that cooperation is met with cooperation and competition with competition
What do the following escalate to when conflict escalates in a situation?
Soft tactics ->
- Uncertainty ->Commitment
- Perception ->Misperception
- Soft tactics ->Hard Tactics
- Reciprocity ->Upward Conflict Spiral
- Few ->Many
- Irritation ->Anger
What theory suggests that conflict between groups stems from competition for scarce resources?
Realistic Group Theory
What is the effect when greater competitiveness of groups when interacting with other groups relative to the competitiveness of individuals interacting with other individuals called?
The Discontinuity effect
When threats are answered with threats, insults with insults, and aggression with aggression, what norm is being exhibited?
Norm of Reciprocity
What is the tendency to favor one's own group over all others?
The Ingroup-Outgroup Bias
Personal space for groups can be divided into various Interpersonal Zones. What is the stratification of these different "Zones"?
- Intimate Zone: (Arm wrestling, whispering)
- Personal Zone: (Talking to friends or acquaintances, maintaing conversation
- Social Zone: (Meetings held over large desks, formal dining, and professional presentations)
- Public Zone: (More formal, stage presentations, lectures, addresses)
- Remote Zone: (different location, cyber-communication)
What is a group formed to help individuals extend their self-understanding and improve their relationships with others called?
Interpersonal Learning Group
What approach to group therapy encourages teaching group members to understand the unity of their emotions and cognitions through a leader-guided exploration of their behavior in the group situation?
Gestalt group therapy
What is the structure of a T-Group?
- Very little structure
- Use of a facilitator to catalyse discussion alone.
What type of group offers a form of sensitivity training that provides individuals with the opportunity to gain deep interpersonal intimacy with other group members?
What type of Interpersonal learning group offers a planned intervention such as a workshop, seminar, or retreat, focusing on a specific interpersona problem or skill?
Structured Learning Group
Groups that exist to provide support for people with any kind of medically related or addiction related problem would be called what?
Support Groups/Self-Help Groups
What theory suggests that collective behavior involves people with similar needs, values, and goals who converge together?
What is a large group of people who display similarities in actions and outlooks and tend to exist outside of traditional forms of social structures?
What is the experiential state caused by a number of input factors, such as group membership and anonymity, that is characterized by the loss of self-awareness, altered experiencing, and atypical behavior?
What theory suggests that collecive and uniform behavior is caused by members' conformity to unique normative standards that develop spontaneously?
Emergent Norm Theory
What is Kurt Lewin known for?
- Coining the term Group DynamicsConducted some of the earliest studies on CohesionLewin's Law of Change: states that individuals are more easily changed in groups than as individuals
What is Jacob Moreno known for?
- Sociometry: a research technique that graphically and mathematically summarizes patterns of intermember relations
- Psychodrama: Therapy method of stimulating active involvement through role-playing.
What is Stanley Milgram known for?
Conducted famous research on Obedience where subjects were forced to shock subjects when they were wrong.
What is Irving Janis known for?
What is Phillip Zimbardo known for?
Stanford prison experiment that observed Power of Roles
What is Irving Yalom known for?
Interpersonal group psychotherapy: an approach to the treatment of psychological, behavioral, and emotional problems that emphasizes the therapeutic influence of interpersonal learning.
What is Gustave Le bon known for?
His book The Crowd