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The macronutrients include
The micronutrients include
The Sixth nutrient is
The total daily intake recommended for CHO is
The total daily intake recommended for fat is
The total daily intake recommended for protein is
Main storage form of carbohydrate?
Glycogen is stored in the
liver and muscles
The sum of the physical and chemical processes inside the cells that sustain health and life and produce energy?
Primary source of fuel for the body?
Most concentrated source of fuel for the body?
Excessive fat intake results in the formation of?
adipose tissue is stored?
usually right under the skin
Proteins are important in?
building and repairing body tissue
Nitrogen Balance =
nitrogen intake plus nitrogen output
Positive nitrogen balance =
when nitrogen intake exceeds nitrogen output
Negative nitrogen balance =
nitrogen output exceeds nitrogen intake
The most abundant dietary disaccharide is
sucrose (table sugar)
Ggastric enzyme found in infants functioning to coagulate milk
Food energy is expressed as
Kilocalories, calories or fuel factors
CHO and fats are made up of the chemical elements:
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Proteins are made up of the chemical elements:
carbon, hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen
Most vulnerable to malnutrition
- lactating women
Chronic diseases related to diet:
- pulmonary disease
- diabetes mellitus
- coronary heart disease
An essential nutrient is?
one that the body cannot synthesize; it must be supplied in foods
The major means of transport of fats in the blood stream?
Chemical digestion of starch begins in the
Chemical digestion of fats begins in the
Chemical digestion of proteins begins in the
Preferred fuel for heart muscles?
The RDA's are developed by the?
National Academy of Sciences, Food and Nutrition Board
What are the goals of Healthy People 2020:
- a. An increase in span of healthy life
- b. Reduction of health disparities
Changing foods into smaller substances for cells to use is accomplished through the processes of
digestion, absorption, and metabolism
Major digestion and absorption takes place in the
small intestines where the major breakdown of CHO, proteins and fats along with vitamins and minerals are absorbed into the blood stream. Undigested food substances (fiber), water, and waste are excreted. After absorption nutrients are carried to the cells.
mechanical or muscular and chemical actions
The network of nerves within the gastrointestinal tract that regulates muscular action is the
intramural nerve plexus
Muscular actions found in the small intestines?
- Longitudinal rotation
- pendicular movements
The AAAA gland releases BBBBin the mouth to begin digestion of CCCC
- A - parotid
- B - salivary amylase
- c - carbohydrates
AAAA involves the action of biting, chewing and breaking up food ingested into smaller particles. Mixing and churning of the ingested food with gastric secretions results in a semi-liquid called BBBB
- A - Mastication
- B - chyme
Hydrochloric acid released in the stomach lowers the pH of the stomach content, which changes pepsinogen into pepsin, and starts the digestion of protein.
- 37. Mucus is produced in the mouth, the stomach, and in the small intestine.
- 38. Functions of Carbohydrates include major/preferred source of energy, glycogen
- reserve, spare protein, antiketogenic effect.
- 39. Monosaccharides include glucose, fructose, and galactose.
- 40. Disaccharides include maltose, sucrose, and lactose.
- 41. Polysaccharides include starch, fiber, glycogen, and dextrin. The recommended daily fiber intake is 25 grams per day.
- 42. Photosynthesis occurs in the presence of carbon dioxide, water, sunlight, and
- chlorophyll (the green color in plants).
- 43. Hypoglycemia is blood sugar below the normal range.
- 44. Hyperglycemia is blood sugar above the normal range.
- 45. Normal glucose level in the blood is 70-120.
- 46. The sugar that circulates in the blood is glucose.
- 47.lnsulin is the only hormone responsible for lowering blood glucose levels.
- 48. One gram of digestible carbohydrates and proteins provide ~ kilocalories. One gram of Fats/lipids provides i kilocalories per gram.
49. CALCULATE THE FOllOWING:
- a. 35 grams of fat will provide 315 kcal
- b. 15 grams of protein will provide 60 kcal
- c. 25 grams CHO, 10 grams protein and 10 grams offat = 230 kcal
- d. What proportion of 1500 kcal would come from fats if one consumed 50 grams of fat?
- 50 gm x _9_ kcal = 450 kcal
- 450 kcal -;- 1500 kcal x 100 = 30%.
- 50. To calculate Body Mass Index (BMI) one needs to know height and weight.The . formula is: BMI = weight (Ibs) -;- height (inches)2 x 705.
- 51. Nutrient Density refers to a higher concentration of nutrients in a smaller amount of food.
- 52. Caloric Density refers to a higher concentration of energy (kcalories) in a smaller amount of food.
- 53. Trypsin (trypsinogen) and chymotrypsin (chymotrypsinogen), and,
- carboxypeptidase (procarboxypeptidase), are enzymes produced by the pancreas and act on proteins in the small intestines.
- 54. The end product of CHO digestion is monosaccharides, of fat digestion is fatty acids, glycerol, diglycerides, and monoglycerides; and of protein digestion is amino acids.
- 55. Functions of Fat include energy, provides essential nutrients, giving food flavor, providing feeling' of satiety or satisfaction, vital organ protection, stored energy, and temperature regulation.
- 56. Linoleic acid and Linolenic acid are the essential fatty acids.
- 57. The hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) causes the gall bladder to contract releasing bile which is important in splitting fat into smaller droplets or globules.
- 58. The end products of CHO and protein enter the portal blood system after
- digestion; and lipids enter the lymphatic system.
- 59. Animal fat, palm oil and coconut oil are saturated fats.
- 60. Fats/lipids are either saturated or unsaturated.
- 61. Saturated fats are usually from animal sources, and are solid at room temperature.
- 62. Unsaturated oils are from plant sources, contain at least one double bond, and are liquid at room temperature.
- 63. Vegetable oils are monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats.
- 64. Functions of Proteins include build, maintain, and repair tissue, water balance, body defense system (immune function or antibodies), form enzymes and hormones, transport nutrients, and energy.
- 65. Nutritionists generally recognize -1!.. essential amino acids.
- 66. Complete proteins are from animal sources and contain all -!- essential amino acids. Incomplete proteins are from plants sources. Complimentary proteins are from a combination of a grain and a legume or nuts.
- 67. Gelatin is an incomplete protein from an animal source.
- 68. Homeostasis is the state of equilibrium/balance within the body.
- 69. RDA's were established to set standards of nutrient needs for most healthy persons, base on age and ~.
- 70. Choose MyPlateFood Guide and the Exchange Lists are food guides. The Exchange List groups foods that are equivalent in their food value.
71. The RDA for protein for adults is 0.8 grams/kg of body weight. For persons above
- the age of 65, the RDA is 1.0 grams/kg of body weight.
- 72. Growth and repair is called anabolism. .
- 73. Breakdown is called catabolism. 74.150 Ibs. = 68.18 kg (1 kg = 2.2 Ibs.)
- 75.5 feet 4 inches or 64 inches = 162.56 cm (1 inch = 2.54 cm).
- 76. One unique feature of enzymes is that they are specific to the substrate, and can be used over and over again.
- 77. Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) x Physical Activity Level (PAL)+ Thermic Effect of Foods (TEF) equals Total Energy Output. The Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) for women is 0.9 kcal/kg per hr, and for men it is 1.0 kcal/kg per hr.
- 78. Women have more body fat than men resulting in a lower BMR. 79.Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder caused by self induced starvation.
- 79. Bulimia Nervosa is an eating disorder caused by gorging on food and then inducing
- 81.3500 calories is equivalent to one pound of body fat.
- 82. To lose 1 lb. a week, one must reduce intake by 500 kcal per day.
- 83. Body water accounts for 50-60% and bone ~ % of total body weight. It varies with the amount of muscle mass.
- 84. Obesity results when energy intake is greater than energy output.
- 85. Overweight = 10% above the desirable ideal body weight for height; obesity = 20% above the desirable ideal body weight for height; and underweight = 10% or more below the desirable ideal body weight for height. 20% or more below the desirable ideal body weight for height is cause for concern.
- 86. Metabolically active tissue in the body includes the heart, the brain, and the kidneys.
- 87. Naturally occurring fats contain fatty acids in the cis formation. Once hydrogen is added to them, they become trans fatty acids.
- 88.Adding hydrogen to fatty acids to break their double bonds is called hydrogenation.
- 89. Malnutrition occurs when nutritional reserves are depleted. Intake is insufficient to meet daily needs, and caloric intake is inadequate.
- 90. The large intestine is responsible for the absorption of water, some minerals, and
- the production and absorption of Vitamin K.
- 91. Vitamins cannot be synthesized by the body and must perform a vital function.
- 92. Vitamins are classified as fat soluble or water soluble.
- 93. Fat soluble vitamins may be stored.
- 94. Water soluble vitamins cannot be stored and must be supplied daily from dietary
- 95. B complex vitamins function as coenzymes.
- 96. B complex vitamins and vitamin C are both water soluble vitamins.
- 97. The fat soluble vitamins are: Vit A (retinol), Vit 0 (cholecalciferol or calciferol the inactive form or calcitriol- the active form), Vit E (tocopherol) and Vit K (K1 phylloquinone, K2 - menaguinone, and K3 - menadione).
- 98. The water soluble vitamins are: Vit C (ascorbic acid), Vit B1 (thiamin), Vit B2 (riboflavin), Niacin (nicotinic acid or nicotinamide), Vit B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, or pyridoxamine), Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, Folate (folic acid or folacin), and Vit B12 (cobalamin).
99. The liver is the predominant storehouse for vitamin A; and liver is an excellent source of vitamin A.
- 100. Vitamin A helps to form rhodopsin, the visual pigment in the eye and prevents keratinization (hard, dry, and scalelike of the eye). It acts as an antioxidant, and also protects the epithelial tissues.
- 101. Beta carotene is the provitamin A form found in plants. Vitamin A storage can last six to twelve months stored in the liver.
- 102. Food sources are liver, dark green and deep yellow, orange vegetables and
- 103. Fish liver oils are an excellent natural source of vitamin D.
- 104. Dairy products are an excellent fortified source of vitamin D.
- 105. Vitamin D acts more like a hormone than a vitamin; and is synthesized through the skin, the liver, and the kidney to get to its active form of calcitriol.
- 106. Milk and margarine are fortified with vitamin D. Vitamin 0 helps to regulate the absorption and metabolism of calcium and phosphorus.
- 107. Vitamin 0 deficiency in growing children is called rickets; and in adults it's called osteomalacia.
- 108. The richest sources of Vitamin E are vegetable oils.
- 109. Vitamin E protects cellular membranes because it acts as an antioxidant sacrificing itself to the free radicals in the cell. This prevents oxidative breakdown of the polyunsaturated fatty acids in the cell membrane walls. Amounts nEleded vary with the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids located within the cell.
- 110. The mineral selenium spares Vitamin E, and is also an antioxidant.
- 111. The four antioxidants are ACES which stand for: Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and selenium.
- 112. Vitamin K is responsible for the synthesis of the blood clotting factor prothrombin.
- 113. Alcoholics are found to be deficient in thiamin.
- 114. The B vitamin found only in foods of animal origin is cobalamin (Vitamin B12). It uses an intrinsic factor which is secreted by the mucosal cells in the stomach for absorption. Large doses of folate can mask a vitamin B12 deficiency.
- 115. A deficiency of Vitamin C may result in scurvy, of Thiamin in beri beri, of Riboflavin in cheilosis (swollen lips that crack at the corners) and glossitis (reddened swollen tongue), of Cobalamin (Vit B12) in pernicious anemia, of Folic Acid in megaloblastic anemia, and of Niacin in pellagra.
- 116. Best food sources for Vitamin Care citrus fruits.
- 117. Minerals are either major or trace minerals. Trace minerals are found in small amounts in the body.
- 118. The Major minerals are: calcium (Ca),. phosphorus (P), sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), chloride (CI), and sulfur (8).
- 119. The essential Trace Element minerals are: iron (Fe), iodine (I), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), - chromium (Cr), selenium (8e), molybdenum (Mo), and fluoride (F).
- 120. Minerals are inorganic and vitamins are organic. Excessive intake of minerals can be toxic.
- 121. The two minerals that occur in the extracellular fluid and regulate water balance are sodium and chloride.
122. Helping to synthesize thyroxine is the only known function of iodine, preventing
- 123. The best source of iodine is iodized table salt.
- 124. Calcium is the mineral found in greatest amounts in the body.
- 125. The metabolic twin of calcium is phosphorus.
- 126. The active form of Vitamin 03 calcitriol, parathyroid hormone, and calcitonin regulate the amount of calcium and phosphorus found in the bloodstream and in the bones and teeth.
- 127. Vitamin 0 helps to absorb calcium and deposits it into the bones. When the level in the bloodstream becomes low, parathyroid hormone pulls calcium out of the bones and back into the bloodstream; while calcitonin prevents abnormal rises in the serum calcium by preventing the parathyroid hormone from pUlling too much calcium from the bones.
- 128. The body is composed of the following four compartments: lean body mass (the muscles and organs), body fat, water body, and bone.
- 129. Extracellular Fluid (ECF) = plasma, secretory water, tissue fluids and interstitial fluid or water surrounding the cells.
- 130. Sodium is found in the extracellular fluid. Potassium is found in the intracellular
- fluid (ICF).
- 131. The kidneys regulate the body's sodium level through the hormone aldosterone.
- 132. Fluoride is responsible for the prevention of dental caries.
- 133. Cation = a positive charge (Na+ and K+); while anion = a negative charge (CI-).
- 134. K (Potassium) may be lost as a result of diarrhea and/or vomiting.
- 135. Anemia may be caused by a lack of iron in the diet. An excellent source of iron is liver.
- 136. Foods high in vitamin C increase iron absorption.
- 137. A stored form of iron is ferritin stored in the liver, spleen and bone marrow, or
- hemosiderin which is excess that's stored in the liver.
- 138. The iron circulating in the bloodstream is called transferrin.
- 139. The body excretes approximately one to two liter of fluid daily.
- 140. Thirst is the basic mechanism for maintaining hydration in the body.
- 141. Metabolic water results from oxidation of nutrients in the cells.
- 142. The registered dietitian is the professional responsible for the application of nutritional science in the clinical setting.
- 143. A well developed body, smooth clear skin, good posture, mental alertness, physical alertness, and glossy hair are all possible signs of good nutrition.
- 144. Using the Harris Benedict formula (A) and the activity/stress factors (B), determine the Total Energy Requirement of a 50 year old male that weighs 180 pounds, and is 5 feet 10 inches:
- 180# = 81.82 kg 2.2
- A. 66 + [13.7 x wt (kg)] + [5 x ht (em)] - [6.8 x age (yr)] = 1,735.934or 1,736kilocalories = Basal Energy Expenditures (BEE).
B. 1,736 keals (BEE) x 1.5 x 1.0 = 2,603.901 or 2,604 kcalories = Total Energy Requirement (TER)
- A. 66 + [13;7 x 81.82 kg] + [5 x 177.8 em] - [6.8 x 50 yrs] =
- 66 + 1,120.934+ 889 - 340= 1,735.934 or 1,736 kiloealories(BEE)
- 66.000 1,120.934
- + 889.000 2,075.934
- - 340.000
- 1735.934 or
- 1736.0 kilocalories
1. The development of the fetus is directly related to the diet of the mother.
- 2. Higher risk of pregnancy complications occurs in teenage and older age women.
- 3. A pregnant women's energy needs, need to be met because of the need to spare protein.
- 4. Calcium and iron should be increased significantly during pregnancy.
- 5. The recommended daily Iron intake during pregnancy is approximately 30 mg.
- 6. Adequate folate in the conceptional or preconceptional period helps to prevent neuraf tube defects.
- 7. Increase in Vitamin C during pregnancy is an important element in tissue growth.
- 8. Recommendations for a pregnant woman experiencing morning sickness include, taking liquids between meals.
- 9. During pregnancy, insulin requirements increase.
- 10. The most common cause of anemia during pregnancy IS Iron deficiency.
- 11. Three important factors that help support adequate lactation and produce good milk include, diet, fluids, rest and relaxation.
- 12. Pregnant teenagers should be encouraged to avoid fast foods.
- 13. Advantages of breast feeding for the mother are convenience and
- 14. Food for infants should be prepared without added salt and sugar.
- 15. A child's growth may be evaluated using growth charts.
- 16. The main energy source for children is carbohydrates.
- 17. The most suitable first solid food for infants is infant rice cereal.
- 18. Most formulas are based on protein in cow's milk.
- 19. The ideal first food for newborn infants is breast milk.
- 20. Babies should not be put to sleep with a bottle because this could
- lead to early tooth decay.
- 21. Failure to thrive is often caused by inadequate sleep.
- 22. Snacking is a way to get in missing nutrients.
- 23. Eating disorders and constant dieting are common in adolescence girls because society and peers value thinness.
- 24. Parents who use natural foods should be advised to avoid giving honey to infant foods as a source of energy.
25. The focus of health care for the middle age adult is geared toward health promotion and disease prevention.
- 26. Chronic disease often begins to appear during middle adulthood.
- 27. Prescription and OTC drugs can affect nutritional status because they may affect the appetite and absorption of nutrients.
- 28. Energy requirements decrease in adults as adults age because the number of functional body cells decreases with age.
- 29. The percentage of energy intake that should be supplied as carbohydrate for older adults is 45-65%. This should be their main source of energy.
- 30. Older adults' diets tend to be deficient in zinc, iron, and calcium.
- 31. Physiological problems of older adults include decreased thirst and taste sensations that can lead to dehydration.
- 32. An older adult is most likely to have inadequate intake if they live alone.
- 33. Factors that influence the nutrition needs of young adults include physical activity.
- 34. The average young adult male requires more energy than the average young adult female due to larger body size.
- 35. Older adults need more vitamin D than younger adults because they are less efficient in making their own.
- 36. As a result of changing lifestyles and family patterns, Americans eat more convenience foods that fresh or home cooked meals.
- 37. Children exposed to high levels of lead suffer from mental deficits.
- 38. Calcium hinders Iron absorption which can lead to increased absorption of Lead, because high Iron reduces Lead.
- 39. Food additives sometimes increase the nutritional value of foods.
- 40. Current food labels place more emphasis on macronutrients than on micronutrients because macronutrients have a greater impact on the risk of chronic disease.
- 41. Groups especially vulnerable to food fads are obese persons.
- 42. Reliable sources of nutrition information include the registered dietitian.
- 43. Allergic reactions are most often a result of nuts, citrus, eggs, seafood, milk, soy, and/or wheat.
- 44. People sixty-five years old and older need .8g per kg of body weight of Protein a day.
- 45. Every hour of TV watching increase risk of obesity especially in children.