Microbiology

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nora_phllps
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151712
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Microbiology
Updated:
2012-05-02 16:30:09
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Final exam
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  1. 1st name of the scientific name, the taxon b/w family and species.
    genus (genera)
  2. theory that living cells arise only from prexisiting cells.
    Biogensis
  3. idea that life could arise spontaneously from non living matter.
    spontaneous generation
  4. industrial application of micro-organisms, cells or cell components to make a useful product.
    Biotechnology
  5. use of microbes to remove an evironmental pollutant
    Bioremediation
  6. a spherical or ovoid bacterium
    coccus
  7. any rod shaped bacterium, rad shape endospore forming facultatively anaerobic gram positive bacteria
    bacillus
  8. structural molecule of bacterial cell walls consisting of the molecules N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid, tetrapeptide side chain and peptide side chain
    peptidoglycan
  9. a molecule consisting of a lipid and polysaccharide, forming the outer membrane of gram negative cell walls
    lipopolysaccharide
  10. process of spore and endospore formation
    sporogenesis
  11. any compound with which an enzyme reacts
    substrate
  12. minimum collision energy required for a chemical reaction to occur
    activation energy
  13. all synthesis reactions in a living organism, the building of complex organic molecules from simpler ones.
    anabolism
  14. decomposition reactions in a living organism, the breakdown of complex organic coumpounds into simpler ones.
    catabolism
  15. sum of all the chemical reactions that occur in a living cell
    metabolism
  16. domain of prokaryotic organisms, characterized by peptidogylcan cell walls.
    bacteria
  17. domain of prokaryotic cells lacking peptidogylcan cell walls
    archea
  18. the process of synthesizing RNA from a DNA template
    transcription
  19. use of mRNA as a templae in the synthesis of protein
    translation
  20. genetic information can be transferred b/w generations of cells
    replication
  21. opertor and promoter sites and structural genes they control, a unit of genetic material that functions in a coordinated manner by means of and operator, a promoter, and 1 or more structural genes that are transcribed together.
    operon
  22. genes are transferred from one bacterium to another as naked DNA in solution
    Transformation
  23. transfer of DNA from one cell to another by a bacteriophage
    transduction
  24. transfer of genetic material b/w bacterial cells by direct cell to cell contact
    conjugation
  25. condition in which there are bacteria in the blood
    bacteremia
  26. an infection that developes during the course of a hospital stay and was not present at ths time the patient was admitted
    nosocomial infection
  27. portal of entry for pathogens by deposition directly into tissues beneth the skin and the mucus membranes
    parenteral
  28. bacterial iron binding proteins
    siderophores
  29. substances produced by some bacteria that can destroy neutrophils and macrophages
    leukocydins
  30. a hemolytic enzyme produced by streptococci
    streptolysin
  31. part of the outer portion of the cell wall (lipid A) of most gram negative bacteria released on destruction of the cell
    endotoxin
  32. parasitic worms, flatworms, roundworms
    helminths
  33. plasmid or virus used in genetic engerineering to insert into a cell, arthropods that carry pathogenic microorganisms.
    vector
  34. viruses that infect bacterial cells
    bacteriophage
  35. completely fully developed infectious viral particle composed of nucleic acid and surrounded by a protein coat that protects it from its environment and is a vehicle of transmission from one host to another.
    virion
  36. phage inserted into the cells
    prophage
  37. an enyme that synthesizes a complentary DNA from a DNA template, uses viral RNA as a template to produce DNA
    reverse transcriptase
  38. all eukaryotes (animals, plants, fungi, protist)
    Eukarya
  39. a cell having DNA inside a distinct membrane enclosed nucleus
    eukaryote
  40. evolutionary history of a group of organisms, phylogenetic relationships are evolutionary relationships
    phylogeny
  41. science of the classification of organisms
    taxonomy
  42. a protein toxin released from living mostly gram positive bacterial cells.
    exotoxin
  43. a specific group of cytokines alpha and beta are antiviral proteins, produced by certain animal cells in response to a viral infection, gamma stimulates macrophage activity.
    interferons
  44. an enzyme capable of hydrolyzing bacterial cell walls
    lysozyme
  45. white blood cell
    leukocytes
  46. a gene that can bring about malignant transformation
    oncogenes
  47. an infectious agent consisting of a self replicating protein with no detecable nucleuic acids
    prion
  48. infectious RNA, short pieces of RNA with no protein coat
    viroid
  49. # of people who develope the disease during a particular time period
    incidence
  50. # of people who develope a disease in a specified time regardless of when it first appeared.
    prevalance
  51. any disease that spreads from one host to another either directly or indirectly
    communicable
  52. disease that are easily spread from one host to another
    contagious
  53. blood poisoning systemic infection, arising from the multiplication of pathogens in blood.
    septicemia
  54. a substance (enzyme) that lyses red blood cells
    hemolysin
  55. red blood cells.
    erythrocytes

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