1st name of the scientific name, the taxon b/w family and species.
theory that living cells arise only from prexisiting cells.
idea that life could arise spontaneously from non living matter.
industrial application of micro-organisms, cells or cell components to make a useful product.
use of microbes to remove an evironmental pollutant
a spherical or ovoid bacterium
any rod shaped bacterium, rad shape endospore forming facultatively anaerobic gram positive bacteria
structural molecule of bacterial cell walls consisting of the molecules N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid, tetrapeptide side chain and peptide side chain
a molecule consisting of a lipid and polysaccharide, forming the outer membrane of gram negative cell walls
process of spore and endospore formation
any compound with which an enzyme reacts
minimum collision energy required for a chemical reaction to occur
all synthesis reactions in a living organism, the building of complex organic molecules from simpler ones.
decomposition reactions in a living organism, the breakdown of complex organic coumpounds into simpler ones.
sum of all the chemical reactions that occur in a living cell
domain of prokaryotic organisms, characterized by peptidogylcan cell walls.
domain of prokaryotic cells lacking peptidogylcan cell walls
the process of synthesizing RNA from a DNA template
use of mRNA as a templae in the synthesis of protein
genetic information can be transferred b/w generations of cells
opertor and promoter sites and structural genes they control, a unit of genetic material that functions in a coordinated manner by means of and operator, a promoter, and 1 or more structural genes that are transcribed together.
genes are transferred from one bacterium to another as naked DNA in solution
transfer of DNA from one cell to another by a bacteriophage
transfer of genetic material b/w bacterial cells by direct cell to cell contact
condition in which there are bacteria in the blood
an infection that developes during the course of a hospital stay and was not present at ths time the patient was admitted
portal of entry for pathogens by deposition directly into tissues beneth the skin and the mucus membranes
bacterial iron binding proteins
substances produced by some bacteria that can destroy neutrophils and macrophages
a hemolytic enzyme produced by streptococci
part of the outer portion of the cell wall (lipid A) of most gram negative bacteria released on destruction of the cell
parasitic worms, flatworms, roundworms
plasmid or virus used in genetic engerineering to insert into a cell, arthropods that carry pathogenic microorganisms.
viruses that infect bacterial cells
completely fully developed infectious viral particle composed of nucleic acid and surrounded by a protein coat that protects it from its environment and is a vehicle of transmission from one host to another.
phage inserted into the cells
an enyme that synthesizes a complentary DNA from a DNA template, uses viral RNA as a template to produce DNA
all eukaryotes (animals, plants, fungi, protist)
a cell having DNA inside a distinct membrane enclosed nucleus
evolutionary history of a group of organisms, phylogenetic relationships are evolutionary relationships
science of the classification of organisms
a protein toxin released from living mostly gram positive bacterial cells.
a specific group of cytokines alpha and beta are antiviral proteins, produced by certain animal cells in response to a viral infection, gamma stimulates macrophage activity.
an enzyme capable of hydrolyzing bacterial cell walls
white blood cell
a gene that can bring about malignant transformation
an infectious agent consisting of a self replicating protein with no detecable nucleuic acids
infectious RNA, short pieces of RNA with no protein coat
# of people who develope the disease during a particular time period
# of people who develope a disease in a specified time regardless of when it first appeared.
any disease that spreads from one host to another either directly or indirectly
disease that are easily spread from one host to another
blood poisoning systemic infection, arising from the multiplication of pathogens in blood.