lab final.txt

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lab final.txt
2012-05-02 15:13:09
lab final

lab final
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  1. maintains the electrolyte, acid-base & fluid balance of the blood & is the major homestatic organ of the body:
  2. drains urine from kidneys & conducts it by peristalis to bladder:
  3. temporary storage area for urine:
    urinary bladder
  4. drains the bladder:
  5. normal characteristics of urine:
    • clear & pale to deep yellow
    • slightly aromatic
    • pH ranges from 4.5 - 8.0, but average is 6.0 & slightly acidic
    • specific gravity ranges from 1.001-1.030
  6. abnormal urinary constituents & conditions:
    • glucose - glycosuria
    • ketone bodies - ketonuria
    • proteins - proteinuria (albuminuria)
    • pus (WBCs & bacteria) - pyuria
    • RBCs - hematuria
    • hemoglobin - hemoglobinuria
    • bile pigments - bilirubinuria
  7. excessive intake of sugary foods/diabetes mellitus:
  8. starvation; diabetes mellitus when coupled
  9. physical exertion, pregnancy/glomerulonephritis (inflammation of the kidneys), hypertension:
  10. urinary tract infection:
    • pyuria
    • bleeding in the urinary tract (due to trauma, kidney stones, infection):
    • hematuria
  11. transfusion reaction, hemolytic anemia (RBCs are rupturing):
  12. liver disease (hepatitis):
  13. a microscopic tubule consisting of two major parts=glomerulus & renal tubule:
  14. tangled capillary knot that filters fluid from the blood into the lumen of the renal tubule:
  15. function is to process fluid filtered from the blood:
    renal tubule
  16. the beginning of the renal tubule is an enlarged end called:
    glomerular capsule
  17. the glomerulus & the glomerular capsule together are called:
    renal corpuscle
  18. the anatomical parts of the renal tubule are:
    • proximal convoluted tubule
    • loop of Henle
    • distal convoluted tubule
  19. is a passive process in which fluid passes from the lumen of the glomerular capillary into the glomerular capsule of the renal tubule:
    glomerular filtration
  20. moves most of the filtrate back into the blood, leaving principally salt water plus wastes in the lumen of the tubule:
    tubular reabsorption
  21. is essentially the reverse of tubular reabsorption & is a process by which the kidneys can rid the blood of additional unwanted substances such as creatinine & ammonia:
    tubular secretion
  22. is used to denote the hydrogen ion concentration [H+] in body fluids:
  23. the pH of a body's fluids is also referred to as its:
    acid-base balance
  24. a substance that releases H+ in solution(such as body fluids):
  25. a substance, often a hydroxyl ion (OH-) or bicarbonate ion (HCO3-), that binds to H+:
  26. when pH levels fall below 7.35, the body is said to be in a state of:
  27. when pH levels rise above 7.45, the body is said to be in a state of:
  28. a condition of too little carbon dioxide in the blood:
    respiratory alkalosis
  29. is the result of impaired respiration or hypoventilation which leads to the accumulation of too much carbon dioxide in the blood:
  30. is characterized by low plasma HCO3- and pH:
    metabolic acidosis
  31. is characterized by elevated plasma HCO3- and pH:
    metabolic alkalosis
  32. the effect of increasing the afferent radius on glomerular filtration rate & glomerular pressure:
    both rate & pressure increased
  33. the effect of decreasing the efferent radius on glomerular filtration rate & glomerular pressure:
    both rate & pressure increased
  34. the effect of increasing the beaker pressure on glomerular filtration rate:
    rate increased
  35. the effect of increasing the beaker pressure on glomerular pressure:
    pressure increased
  36. what was the glomerular filtration rate at 80mm Hg beaker pressure, 0.55 mm afferent radius, and 0.45 efferent radius:
  37. with the beaker pressure increased to 85 mm Hg, at what afferent radius was the glomerular filtration rate in question 7 restored:
    0.52 mm
  38. with the beaker pressure increased to 85 mm Hg, at what efferent radius was the glomerular filtration rate in question 7 restored:
  39. 3 steps of urine formation:
    • glomerular filtration
    • tubular reabsorption
    • tubular secretion
  40. works to reaborb sodium ions (and thereby water) at the expense of losing potassium ions; its site of action is the distal convoluted tubule; produced by the adrenal gland:
  41. makes the distal tubule and collecting duct more permeable to water, thereby allowing the body to reabsorb water from the filtrate when its present; manufactured by the hypothalamus:
  42. facilitate the transport of glucose over a plasma membrane
    glucose carriers
  43. Used to denote the hydrogen ion concentration in body fluids
  44. Normal pH values
  45. Composed of a mixture of weak acids and weak bases. Regulate pH levels by binding H+ and removing it from solution as its concentration begins to rise or fall.
    Chemical buffer
  46. Has 2 major buffers (renal and respiratory). Help regulate body pH by controlling the output of acids, bases, or carbon dioxide from the body.
    Physiological buffer
  47. Relationship between CO2 and pH
    If more CO2 accumulates in body, it lowers the pH
  48. How does the physiological buffer respond to different CO2 & pH levels
    • Too much acid...execretes more H+in urine.
    • Too much CO2... generates more H+ in body
  49. How metabolic rate affects pH and CO2 rates
    • Increase in metabolism...lowers pH causing acidosis
    • Decrease in metabolism...less CO2, raises pH, causing alkalosis
  50. Cells that contain a nucleus
  51. During cell reproduction the DNA coils and forms
  52. Specialized sex cells are called
    gametes (sperm, egg)
  53. Sex cells combine and form the first cell of a new individual through a process called
  54. Fertilized egg
  55. In plants, a male gamete is called
    • sperm
    • A female is called
    • ova
  56. In animals, a male gamete is called
    • sperm
    • A female is called
    • egg
  57. Meiosis is also known as
    reduction division
  58. What does meiosis do
    Reduces the number of chromosomes in gametes to 1/2 the number contained in a parent cell
  59. 2 copies of each chromosome is known as
    diploid (2n)
  60. 1 copy of each chromosome is known as
    haploid (n)
  61. Plants undergo ________ __ _________ in its life cycle
    alternation of generation
  62. Name the 2 divisions of meiosis
    I and II
  63. Name the order of stages in Stage I of meiosis
    Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I, Telephase I, Cytokinesis I
  64. Name the order of stages in Stage II of meiosis
    Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II, Telephase II, Cytokinesis II
  65. During this phase the diploid has already doubled its DNA to become tetraploid
    Prophase I
  66. Matched pairs
    homologous chromosomes
  67. Crossing over
    Mixing of genetics
  68. Phase that shows the formation of the spindle;tetrads align at equator of the cell
    Metaphase I
  69. Phase where homologous chromosomes seperate, but sister chromatids stay together and move to opposite ends of the cell
    Anaphase I
  70. Phase where the chromosomes gather at the poles and uncoil to thin, threadlike form
    Telephase; Cytokinesis I
  71. Thin, threadlike forms are
  72. Phase where chromosomes coil and nuclear membrane disappears
    Prophase II
  73. Phase where spindle formsand sister pairs align at the equator of cell
    Metaphase II
  74. Sister chromatids seperate
    Anaphase II
  75. Phase where chromatids reach the poles and uncoil into thin, threadlike chromatin
    Telephase II
  76. Phase where two diploid daughter cells formed in the first division are physically divided into tow haploid daughter cells
    Cytokinesis II
  77. A male produces ____ haploid sperm
  78. This enables the male to produce sperm
    primary sperm atocyte
  79. A female produce ____egg and _____ smaller remnants
    1 & 3
  80. The smaller remnants that female produce are called
    polar bodies
  81. Passing of traits or characterisitics from one generation to the next
  82. Humans have a total of ______ chromosomes, _______from male and _______female
    46, 23, 23
  83. These express themselves even when just one copy is present
    dominant genes
  84. These express themselves only when 2 copies are present
    recessive genes
  85. These are used to designate dominant genes
    Capital letters
  86. These represent recessive genes
    lowercase letters
  87. An individual with 2 dominant and 2 recessive genes is called
  88. An individual with 1 dominant and 1 recessive gene is called
  89. The genetic makeup of an individual is called
  90. Shows the transmission of a genetic trait through generations of family
  91. Useful for detemining the genotype of a person as well as predicting genotypes of future generations