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what is alternative medicine?
diverse medical and health care systems, practices and products
what is complementarey medicine?
CAM = alternative medicine + drugs
what is acupunture?
- inserting needles into specific points on the skin
- stimulate endorphins
- 47% relief from acupunture in study
what is sham acupunture?
- study done to see if made a difference where needle was placed.
- 44% relief from sham
what is biofeedback?
- process of providing feedback information about the status of the biological systems
- two approaches: healers and research
who did a study on biofeedback on animals?
neal e. miller
what EMG biofeedback ?
- reflects the activity of the skeletal muscles by measuring the electrical discharge in muscle fibers
- attaching eletrodes
- increase muscle tension- rehab
- decrease muscle tension - stress management
1970's study done on who?
what did they find?
- incoming freshman who had high blood pressure
- systolic bp went down
what is thermal biofeedback?
- used to help cope with stress and pain based on skin temp
- -cold skin = stress and tension
- -warm skin = calm and relax
what is hypnotic induction?
- placed into a hypnotic state
- divided consciouness
- answer questions
dean ornish diet?
- limit fat -10% of diet
- vegetarian diet
- not aimed at wt loss
- beneficial for cardiovascular health
what is mindfulness meditation?
- enhanced awareness of perceptions
- control anxiety
- manage chronic disease and pain conditions
what is meditation?
- repeating mantra
- Benson - Harvard MD
what is cognitive therapy?
help the patient overcome difficulties by identifying and changing dysfunctional thinking, behavior, and emotional responses
what is atherosclerosis?
- formation of plaques and the resulting occurance of the arteries
- may restrict blood flow to brain
what is arteriosclerosis?
- loss of elasticity of the arteries
- cardiovascular system less capable of tolerating increases in cardiac blood volume
- may restrict blood flow to brain
what is a stroke?
- damage to the brain resulting from lack of oxygen to the brain
- death of neurons in the brain
- blood clots may form
- clots floating in the cardiovascular system
what is a myocardial infarction?
- medical term referring to heart attack
- disrupt heart beat
- signals : weakness, dizzy
- cant repair - scar tissue formed
what is systolic pressure?
- 1st number to measure blood pressure
- pressure generated by hearts contraction
what is diastolic pressure?
- second number to measure bp
- pressure expereinced between contractions
- reflecting elasticity between contractions
what is essential hypertension?
- chronic elevation of bp which is from both genetics and enviromental causes
- related to aging
- other factors: being black, wt, tobacco use, sodium intake, lack of exercise
what are the behavioral factors of cardiovascular disease?
- leading cause of death worldwide
- inherent risk factors: aging, family history, gender, ethnic background
what are psychological factors that can lead to cardiovascular disease?
- education level
- social support
- stress,anxiety, depression
- hostility and anger
- *Friedman and Rosenman
what are physiological conditions that lead to cardiovascular disease?
- serum cholestrol levels
- glucose metabolism
what is LDL?
positively related to cardiovasuclar disease
what is HDL?
- negatively related to cardiovascular disease
- offers some protection against CVD
what is the Jenkins Activity Survey?
- 1000 adults/then college students
- outcome : cynical hosiltity
- written test
- Dr. Jenkins and Dr. Glass (made it for students)
what are the four scales of the Jenkins Activity Survey?
- type a behavior
- speed and impatience
- job involvement - study habits
- hard driving
Designed to measure Type a behavior
what is type A behavior?
- *Friedman and Rosenman described people with hostile, competitive, concerned with #'s
- Early years: predictor of heart disease
- Later: no evidence
who presented cynical hostlity?
redford williams 1989
what is cynical hostility?
- especially harmful to cardiovascular health
- people who mistrust others, think the worst of humanity and who interact with cynical hositity
- appears as a factor on whether survival of heart attack can decrease life expectancy
what is anger expression?
- experience may not be a risk of anger
- expression may be a risk of anger
how to reduce the risk factors of cardiovascular disease?
- prevent 1st heart attacks
- be aware of bp, reduce hypertension
- statin drugs
what are benign cells?
- altered cells
- remain localized
what are malignant cells?
- establish secondary colonies
- invade and destroy
- may metastsize
what is metastize?
- spread through blood or lymph
- spread to other body sites
what the four groups of malignant cells?
what is a carcinoma?
- cancer of epithelial cells
- line outer and inner surfaces of body
- ex. skin, mucus membranes, stomach lining
what is a sarcoma?
- cancer on the connective tissue
- ex. bone, muscle, cartilege
what is a leukemia ?
- cancer that orginates in the blood or blood-forming cells
- ex. stem cells or bone marrow
what accounts for the 95% of cancer cells?
what is lymphoma?
- cancer of lymphatic system
- rare type of cancer
inherant risk factors of cancer?
- ethnic background
how is smoking related to cancer?
- lung cancer
- women who smoke throughout adolescents = breast cancer
- largest risk for cancer mortality wordwide
what is the synergistic effect?
- two compounds combined = greater risk
- smoking +
- ethnic background
What is the alameda county study?
cross sectional (follow and see what disease comes) vs retrospective (look at past see what caused it)
what is the western electric health study?
- shelbelle (1981)
- tested 2000+ men
- ages 40-55
- 379 depresssed
- 2x as many depressed than not
what is an oncologist
branch of medicine that deals with tumors, including study of their development, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.
what is alzheimers disease?
- degenertative disease of the brain
- plaques and tangles of nerve fibers in cerebral cortex and hippocampus
- biggest risk factor: age
what increases the risk of alzheimers disease?
- head injury
- type 2 diabetes
- most common psychiatric problem : depression
what does the pancreas produce?
- islet cells
what is insulin?
decreases level of glucose in the blood by causing tissue cell membranes to open so glucose can enter cells more freely
what is type 1 diabetes?
- insulin dependent
- before age 30
what is type 2 diabetes?
- defect in cell prevent absorbtion of glucose
- diet management
what is asthma?
chronic inflammatory disease that causes contriction of bronchial tubes preventing air to pass freely
how is the hygiene hypotheis related to asthma?
- is a result of to much cleaning in everyday modern society
- other risk factors: sedentary and obesity
what is HIV ?
- symptoms that develop over a 10 year period
- transmission: needles, sex, birth,
what is AIDS?
- disorder in which the immune system losses its effectiveness leaving body defenseless against bacteria and viruses
- result of HIV
what is HAART?
tx of combination of pills that are taken on a strict schedule