ATFinal.txt

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itzlinds
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ATFinal.txt
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2012-05-04 14:17:11
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Athletic Training Final
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Athletic Training Final
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  1. what are the 3 major purposes of conditioning for the athletic trainer?
    • reduce injury
    • prepare the athlete for activity
    • injury rehabilitation
  2. what is the background of a certified strength and conditioning coach & how can their relationship with an LAT enhance a conditioning/rehab program for patients?
    • cooperative relationship that serves to condition athletes in an effor to minimize injury and maximize preformance
    • knowledge of flexibility, strength, and cardiorespiratiory endurance is necessary
    • many strength coaches are certififed through the National Strength and Condiditoning Association
  3. describe the principals of conditioning and training:
    • safety: proper techniques
    • warmup/cooldown:
    • movitation: keep the program enjoyable
    • overload: work harder than they are accustome to working
    • SAID pricipal: specific adaption to imposed demands
    • consistency:
    • progression:
    • intensity: if intense work, dont have to work for long periods of time
    • specificity: strength, flexiblity, cardiorespiratory, endurance
    • individuality: adjusts conditioing program for the individual
    • minimal stress: train close to their physiological limits
  4. what is the role of warm ups:
    • precaution against unnecessary musculoskeletal injury/soreness
    • prepares body for physiolgically for physical work
    • stimulate cardiorespiratory system
    • increase metabolic process, core temp. and muscle elasticity
  5. what should the duration of warm ups be:
    • 2-3 mins of light jogging to increase core temp
    • breaking a light sweat is indication of temp increase
  6. what are the pros & cons of dynamic streching:
    use of continous motion to prepare the body for activity

    • pros
    • enhances coordination + motor ability
    • stimulates nervous system
    • prepares muscles/joints for activity

    • cons
    • requries focus/attention
    • include activities for all muscle groups
    • 5-20 mins
    • activity immediatly after warm up
  7. why is cool down most important... in regards to stretching and increased ROM:
    • bring body back to resting state
    • decrease muscle soreness
  8. cardiorespiratory endurance:
    the ability to preform whole body, large muscle activities for extened periods of time
  9. VO2max:
    • the greatest rate at which oxygen can be taken in and used during excerise
    • aerobic capacity
  10. aerobic vs. anaerobic metabolism: duration of activity, examples of activity, basic knowledge of how each works:
    • anaerobic
    • inital ATP production from glucose
    • without oxygen
    • explosive, short duration, burst-type activities
    • duration: 10 sec - 2 mins
    • activity: runnning, swimming sprints

    • aerobic
    • transition to glucose to fat oxidation
    • requiring energy
    • continueous long duration, sustanined activity
    • duration: 20-60 mins
    • activity: cross country
  11. define target/training heart rate, know how to calculate
    involves exercising at max levels, and monitoring HR

    220-age = HRmax
  12. define heart rate reserve, and know how to calculate:
    • potential of heart rate training intensities
    • HRR= HRmax - HRrest
  13. define karvonene equation:
    used to calcuate exerecise heart rate at a given precentage of training intensity

    Exercise HR= % of target intenestity(HRmax-HRrest) + HRrest
  14. interval training:
    • intermittent activities invloving periods of intense work/active recovery
    • 60-80% of max HR
    • high intensity training for an exteneded peroid of time
  15. fartlek:
    • acitivity occurs over a speicfic peroid of time, but pace and speed are not specified
    • varied terrain, varing degress of hills
  16. muscle strength:
    • ability to generate force against resistance
    • training: slower reps at heavier wt.
  17. muscle power:
    relationship between strength and time
  18. muscle endurance:
    • repetitive musclar contractions
    • training: lower wt. with more reps
  19. isometeric contraction:
    • no length change occurs during contraction
    • Pros: quick, effective, cheap, good for rehab
    • cons: only works one point in the ROM
  20. isotonic contraction:
    • concentric
    • shortening of muscle with contraction in an effort to overcome more resistance
    • training: lift at least 1-2 seconds

    • eccentric
    • lengthening of muscle with contraction because load is greater than force being produced
    • training: 2-4 seconds
  21. hypertrophy:
    enlargement of a muscle caused by an increase in the size of its cells in response to training
  22. fast twitch vs. slow twitch:
    fibers within a particular motor unit display distinct netabolic and contractile capability

    • slow twitch
    • fatigue resistant
    • time necessary to produce force is greater
    • long duraction, aerobic type activity
    • major consitituent of postural muscles


    • fast twitch
    • fatigue
    • anaerobic in nature
    • high force in short amount of time
    • produce powerful movements
  23. overload principal:
    • activity must be increased and upgraded constantly in order to gain a higher response from the body
    • work near maximum capacity
    • applicable to conditioning and training
  24. why is core stabilization trainingn important?
    • center of gravity
    • improves dynamic postural control, musclular balance , functional strength, neuromusclar effeciency
    • allow prime movers to generate strong, powerful, movements
    • weak core and lead to injury
  25. what is progessive resistance exercise:
    • stengthens msucles throught a contraction that overcomes some fixed resistance produced by equipment
    • 3 sets of 6-8 reps
    • training 3-4 times/per week
  26. circuit training:
    • combinatin of exercise stations
    • 8-12 stations, 3 x thru
    • training goals: flexibility, calisthenics, aerobic exercise
  27. calisthenic strengthening excerise:
    • free exercise
    • isotonic training
    • gravity's involvement determins level of intensity
    • full range of motion, may incorperate holding phase
    • pull-ups, push-ups, back extensions, leg extensions
  28. polymeteric exercise:
    • rapid stretch, eccentric contraction, followed by a rapid concentric contraction to create a forcefull explosive movement
    • stretch-shortening cycle: muscle takes advantage of pontential energy, resulting in increased power productoin
    • jumps, medicen ball throws
    • helps developmentn of eccentric control of dynamic movements
  29. list the factors that limit flexibility:
    • bony structures
    • tissue approximation
    • excessive fat
    • msucles and tendon lengths
    • connective tissue
    • scarring and contractures
    • skin
    • neural tissue tightness
  30. agonist:
    muscle producing movement
  31. anatagonist:
    muscle undergoing stretch druing movement
  32. ballistic:
    • bouncing movement in which repetitive contractions of agonist work to strech antagoinst muscles
    • possible soreness due to repeated ennentric contractions of antagonist
  33. static stretching:
    • passively stretching
    • 6-8 sec hold
    • go to point of pain then back off n hold for 30 sec.
  34. macronutrient:
    • components of food, from which energy is derived
    • carbs, proteins, fats
  35. micornutrients:
    • necessary for regulating normal body functions
    • vitamins, minerals, water
  36. what is the role of carbohydrates and some examples:
    the body's most efficient source of engery

    • sugars
    • fruits, syrup, honey

    • starch
    • rice, potatoes, breads

    • fiber
    • oatmeal, leguems
    • aids in the elimination of waste
  37. what is the role of protein and examples:
    • make up the strcutrual components of the body
    • need for growth, maintence, and repair all body tissues
    • aid with enzyme, hormone production
    • examples: amino acids, in animal foods
  38. what is the role of fats, and provide examples:
    • the bodys primary source of energy, most concentrated
    • growth + development
  39. what is the role of vitamins and provide examples:
    regulate body processes

    • fat soluble
    • A, D, E, K

    • water soluble
    • C, B complex

    • anitoxidents
    • protect cells from free radical
    • prevent aging, cancers, heart disease
  40. what is the role of minerals and provide exmaples:
    • iron: energy metabolism, oxygen transport
    • magnesium: engery supply rxns
    • calcium: bore formation, clotting, contractions
    • sodium, potassium: nerve conduction
  41. what is the role of water:
    • essential for all chemical processes
    • maintain hoemostatic levels of hydration
  42. what is the role of caffeine in the body:
    • central nervous stimulant
    • increased alertness, decrease fatigue
    • enhances fat utilization and endurance performance
    • makes calcium more available allowing muscles to work effectively
  43. what is the role of alcohol in the body:
    • provies energy for the body
    • central nervous system depressant
    • decrease coordination, slow rxn time, decrease mental alertness
  44. total vegetarian (vegan):
    • all plant diet, no animal products
    • must consum enough calories, vita B12, calcium, zinc, iron
  45. lactovegetarian:
    • consume plant food and milk products
    • watch iron, zinc levles
  46. ovolactovegetarian:
    • consume plant food, milk products, eggs
    • iron is still a concern
  47. semivegetarian:
    still primarily plants but all other products are consumed except red meat
  48. what is glycogen supercompensation:
    • increased muscle and liver glycogen stores prior to major event by altering eating and training habits
    • decrease training at least 48 hrs prior to event
    • increase CHO loading to increase glycogen stores and positively impact msucle glycogen and muscle endurance
  49. recommendations for restoring muscle glycogen after exercise:
    • when the time period between events is < 8 hrs - consume CHO ASAP to maximize recover
    • complete restoration rquire 20-24 hrs
    • consume .45-.55 gram of CHO/ lb of body wt for each of the first 4 hours
    • pasta, potatoes, oatmeal and sports drinks are recommened
  50. overweight:
    excess body weight relative to size and stature
  51. overfat:
    excessively high precentage of total body weight
  52. obesity:
    extreme amount of excessive fat
  53. assessing body composition:
    • hydorstatic weighing: underwater tank to determine body density, accurate, but expenseive
    • bioelectricle impedance: measures resistance of electrical current flow between points
    • skinfold thickness
  54. determining body mass index:
    • determined extent of overweight or obesity using height and body weight
    • utilized to measure health risks associated with obesity
    • BMI> 25 indicate excess body fat
    • BMI 25-30 indicates overweigh
    • BMI > 30 indicates state of obesity
  55. assessing caloric balance:
    • caloric balance = calories consumed - calories expended
    • positive caloric balance results in weight gain and vice versa for negative caloric balance
    • basal metabolism: calories expended at rest
  56. eating disorders issues with athletes
    • control over body weight/composition for performance
    • emotional/social pressures characteristic of eating disorders
  57. bulimia:
    • periods of starvation, bingeing (thousands of calories) and purging thru vomiting, fasting, laxatives/diuretics
    • white, middle-upper class
    • perfectionist, obedient, over-compliant, highly motiviate
    • gymnastics, track, dance
  58. anorexia nervosa:
    distored body image, constant concern about weight gain
  59. anorexia athletica:
    • characterized by features common in anorexia nervosa
    • disturbance of body image
    • weight loss > 5% of body weight
    • gastrointesinal complaints
    • absence of illness explaining weight reduction
  60. female athlete triad:
    • combination of eating disorders, amenorrhea, and osteoporoisi
    • bone lost may not be regained
  61. hyperthermia:
    elevated body temperature
  62. preventing heat illness:
    • common sense/precaution: consume fluids, stay cool
    • hydration: consume at regular intervals (17-20 oz 2-3hrs before activity, additional 7-10 oz 10-20 before excercise
    • using sport drinks: more effective that just water, small amount of sodium help in water retention
    • gradual acclimatization: become accustome to heat and excerising in heat
    • identify susceptible individuals: athletes wiht large muscle mass, overweight athletes, poor fitness, history of heat illness, young and eldery
    • uniform selection: avoid rubberized suits
    • weight records:
  63. what is the heat index:
    • heat, sunshine, and humidity
    • dry bulb: standard mercury temperature
    • wet bulb: thermometer with wet gauze that is swugn around in the air
    • black bulb: black casing that measures radiant heat
  64. heat rash (prickly heat):
    • red, rasied rash, combined with prickling with sweat
    • result of cntiunuouslly wet un-evaporated sweat
    • continually toweling the body will prevent
    • generally localized to areas covered with clothing
  65. heat syncope (heat collapse):
    • associated with rapid fatiuge and overexposure, standing in heat for long periods of time
    • caused by peripheral vasodilation, or pooling of blood in extremities resulting in dizziness and fainting
    • treat by placing athlete in cool environment, consuming fluids and laying down
  66. heat cramps:
    • painful muscle spasms due to excessive water loss and electrolyte imbalance
    • occurs in individual in good shape that overexert themselves
    • treat with fluid ingestion and light stretching with ice massage
  67. external heat exhaustion:
    • inadequate fluid replacement, unable to sustain adequate cardiac output
    • exhibit signs of profuse sweating, pale skin, elevated temperature, dizziness, nasuea, vomiting, diarrheat, hyperventiation
    • treatment: fluid ingestion, IVs, cool environment, remove excess clothing, monitor vital signs
  68. exertional heatstroke:
    • sudden collapse, LOC, CNS dysfunction, flushed hot skin, minimal sweating, shallow breathing, strong rapid pulse, core temp > 104
    • treatment: strip clothing, sponge with cool water, do not immerse in water, cool first, transport to hospital 2nd
  69. malignant hyperthermia:
    • muscle disorder causing hypersensitivity t anesthesia and heat
    • temp will remain eleveated 10-15 mins following excerise
    • disqualify from competition during hot, humid, environment
  70. hypothermia:
    • heat loss exceeds heat production generated by metabolism - results in impairment of neuromuscluar fxn
    • drop in core stimulates shivering but stops after temp drops below 85-90
    • prevention: waterproof, windproof, layers
  71. frost nip:
    • involves ears, nose, chin, fingers, and toes
    • occurs with high winds, and severe cold
    • skin appears firm with cold painless areas that may peel and blister
    • treat with firm pressure, blowing warm air of hands in armpits, do not rub
  72. frostbite:
    • chiliblains: prolonged exposure causing redness and swelling, tingling pain in toes and fingers, poor peripheral circulation
    • superficial: involves only sking and subcutaneous tissue, appears pale, hard, cold and waxy
    • deep: requires hospitalization, blotchy red, swollen, painful
  73. altitude:
    • as height increases, maximum oxygen uptake decreases resulting in a decrease in preformance
    • tachycardia, and hyperventilation
    • having fewer RBC necessary to capture avilable oxygen
    • native adaptions: larger chest capacity, more alveoli, capillaries, and RBC
    • resident: partial adaptions, increased mitochondria, hemoglobin, glycogen conservation
    • vistor: increased breathing, heart action, hemoglobin, blood alklinity
  74. overexposure to sun:
    • long term effects: premature aging, skin cancer due to ultraviolet exposure
    • fair skined people are susceptible
    • use sunscreen: applied 15-30 before exposure, and reapplie after exposure to water, sweating
  75. lighting safety:
    • emergency action plans must be set - chain of command, monitoring of weater service, decision making about removal and return to play
    • flash bang: from time lighting is sighted to the clap of thunder, divide by 5...30 is inherent danager, 15 everyone should leave field
    • return to field 30s after last clap of thunder
    • lighting dector: 40 mi
  76. air pollution:
    • photochemcial: nitrogen dioxide, stagnate air acted on by sunlight to produce ozone
    • smog: carbon monoxide, sulfuer dioxide, and particulate matter

    • stopd or decrease activity during high pollution
    • preform when commuter traffic is less, and ambient temperature is lower
    • aviod high times of ozone levels
    • running should be avioded in areas of high traffic due to auto emissions, carbon monoxide
  77. circadian dysrhythmia (jet lag)
    • depart well rested
    • eat according to time changes
    • avoid dehydration
    • training schedule
    • use caffine when travleing west
    • adopt local time on arrival
  78. what is mechanical injury:
    • a force applied to any part of the body that results in a harmful disturbacne in fxn and or structure
    • force or mechanical energy that changes state of rest of uniform motion of matter
  79. load:
    an external force acting on the body causing internal rxns within the tissues
  80. stiffness:
    • ability of a tissue to resist a load
    • greater stiffness = greater magnititude load can resist
  81. stress:
    internal resistance to an external load
  82. strain:
    • extent of deformation of tissue under loading
    • internal change in tissue (i.e. length) resulting in deformation
  83. how does one differentiate between traumatic vs. overuse injuries:
    traumatic (i.e. direct blow) vs. overuse (i.e. repeptitive dynamic use over time)
  84. muscle strain grades:
    • grade I: some fibers have ben stretched or actually torn, resulting in tenderness and pain on active ROM, full rage is present
    • gradeII: number of fibers have been torn and active contraction is painful, usually a depression or divit is palpable, swelling and discoloration occur
    • grade III: complete rupture of muscle or musculotendinous junction, significant impairment, when initally a great deal of pain that diminshes due to nerve damage
  85. muscle cramps:
    • painful involuntary skeletal muscle contraction
    • occurs in well developed individuals when muscles is in a shortned position
  86. muscle gurading:
    • follwoing injury, muscles withing an effected area contract to splint the area in an effort to minimize pain through limiation of motion
    • not spasm which would indicate increased tone due to upper motion neuron lesion in the brain
  87. muscle spasms:
    • a relfex rexn caused by trauma
    • clonic: alternaiting involuntary muscluar contractions and relaxations in quick succession
    • tonic: rigid contraction that lasts a peroid of time
  88. muscle sorness:
    • overexertion in strenous exercise resulting in musclar pain
    • acute: onset msucle soreness - accompainies fatigue, and is transcient muscle pain experience immediatly after exercise
    • delayed onsent muscle soreness DOMS: pain that occurs 24-48 hrs flowing activity that gradually subsides
  89. tendinitis:
    • inflammation of a tendon
    • gradual onset, with diffuse tenderness due to repeated microtrauma and degerative changes
    • obvious signs of swelling and pain
    • key to treatment is rest
    • without proper healing condition may being to degenerate and be referred to as tendinosis
  90. tendinosis:
    less inflammation, more visibly swollen with stiffness and restricted motion
  91. contusion (bruise):
    • a blow from some external object causes soft tissues to be compressed against hard bone underneath
    • can be both deep or superficial
    • hematoma results from blood and lymph flow into surrounding tissue
  92. subluxation:
    • a bone is forced out of alignment but goes back into place
    • partial dislocation causing imcomplete separation of two bones
  93. dislocation:
    • a bone is forced out of alignment and stays out until surgically or manually replaced or reduced
    • high incidence in fingers and sholder
    • gross deformitity is apparent
    • x-ray is only absolute diagnositic technique
    • treated as fracture until diagnosed
    • once a dislocation, alwasys a dislocation
  94. osteoarthritis:
    • a wearing down of hyaline cartilage as a result of normal use
    • leads to joint degeneration
    • commonly affects weight bearing joints, shoulders and cervical spine
  95. bursitis:
    • inflammation of bursae at sides to bony prominences between muscles and tendons
    • acute: sudden irritation
    • chronic: overuse and constant external compression
  96. avulsion:
    • the separation of a bone fragement from its cortex at an attachment of a ligament or tendon
    • resutls from sudden powerful twist or stretch
  97. signs and symptoms that nerve trauma has occured:
    • compression and tension are primary mechanism, (acute or chronic)
    • physical trauma causes pain and can result in a host of sensory responses (pinch, burn, tingle, muscle weakness, or radiating pain)pain can be referred pain
  98. neuropraxia:
    • interruption in conduction through nerve fibers
    • temporary loss of function
  99. what is an emergency action plan?
    • maintain cardiovascular fxn and indirectly CNS fxn
    • inital evaluation of the injured patient
    • must act ressonably and predendtly at all times
    • must have a prearragned emergency action plan that can be implemented immediatly when necessary
  100. what are some general items that should be included in an emergency action plan:
    • personnel who will be on field during practice
    • specific procedures reguarding the removal of protective equipment
    • make sure phonse are accessible
    • type of emergency
    • suspected injury
    • current assistance being given
    • location of phone
    • exact location of emergency, how to enter
    • location of contact information of athletes
  101. principals of on the field assessment:
    • determine nature of injury
    • provide information regarding direction of treatment
    • divide into primary (life threatening, and LOC) and secondary survey (vitals)
  102. steps to take when dealing with an unconscious patient:
    • must be considered life threatening
    • note body positiion and level of consciousness
    • stabilize cervical spine
    • check and establish airway, breathing, and circulation (ABC)
    • call 911
    • assume neck and spine injury
    • remove helmet only after neck and spine injury is ruled out (facemask removal for CPR)
  103. means of artifical respiration:
    • bag/valve mask
    • barrier pocket mask
  104. what is an AED?
    • a device the evaluates the heart rhythm of a victim of sudden cardiac arrest
    • delivers electrical charge to the heart
    • anyone with knowledge of AED can utilize
  105. obstructed airway management:
    • obstructed individual cannot breath, speak, or cough they may become cyanotic
    • if patient becomes unconscious, open airway and attempt to ventilate
    • if not ventilation perform abdominal thrust and finger sweep
  106. what is shock, why is it a HUGE concern in emergencies:
    • occurs when diminished amount of blood is available to the circulatory system
    • occurs withsever bleeding, fracture and internal injuries
    • general collapse of vascular system comes widespread tissue death, which will eventually lead to the death of the individual

    • signs/symptoms: moist, pale, cold clammy, skin,weak/rapid pulse, increaseing shallow respiration, decreased BP, urinary retention and fecal incontinence
    • management: maintain core temp, elevate feet and legs 8-12'' above heart, keep patient calm, limit onlookers,
  107. what does RICE stand for?
    • rest
    • ice
    • compression
    • elevation
  108. what are some examples of splints and basic steps for applying:
    • rapid form immoblilizer
    • air splint
    • SAM splint
    • half ring splint


    • put a dressing on any open wound before applying a splint
    • splint the injury in the position in which it is found
    • make sure the splint immbolizes the injury and doesnt permit movement
    • immbolizie the joints above and below the site of injury
    • elevate the splinted extremity if possible
    • apply a cold pack around the splint
    • continously check the color of the fingers an toes to make sure cirucution is not impaired

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