Exam 3 questions

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Exam 3 questions
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2012-05-02 17:16:15
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Exam 3 questions
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  1. The peripheral nervous system provides what?
    sensory imput
  2. The peripheral nervous system includes?
    motor neurons
  3. The peripheral nervous system controls what?
    autonomic functions
  4. The central nervous system integrates what?
    sensory imputs
  5. The central nervous system controls what?
    cognition
  6. Which of the following is most highly developed in human brains compared to other mammals?
    A. Left hemisphere
    B. Cerebral cortex
    C. Midbrain
    D. Hypothalmus
    E. Medulla oblongata
    B. cerebral cortex
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. What is most responsible for conscious thought?
    frontal lobe
  8. The part of the brain that controls basal processes is the?
    hind brain and midbrain
  9. The major cell signaling of the nervous system is the what?
    neuron
  10. Cells that form myelin sheaths on axons are?
    Glia
  11. The part of a neuron that is involved in sending outgoing signals is the?
    axon
  12. The part of a neuron that is involved in receiving incoming signals is the
    dendrite
  13. Initiation of an action potential involves what?
    Na+ channel opening
  14. Graded potentials
    • Sometimes involve membrane hyperpolarization, Sometimes involve membrane depolarization, Vary in amplitude according to the strength of a stimulus, and Determine whether threshold potential is reached for
    • intiating an action potential
  15. In a resting neuron, the concentration of K+ ions is high inside the cell because why?
    • Of the energy provided by ATP, Ion-selective channels allow diffusion of K+, A negative charge inside the cell provides electrical attraction to the K+ ions, and The
    • cell membrane is impermeable to Na+ or Cl- ions.
  16. what is involved in depolarizing a neuronal membrane during an action potential?
    Opening Na+ channels
  17. What is involved in repolarizing a neuronal membrane following an action potential?
    Opening K+ channels
  18. Action potentials are conducted in just one direction
    on an axon because why?
    Na+ channels are blocked during the refractory period
  19. Myelination of axons is important because why?
    it enhances the speed of neural impulse conductance
  20. A neurotransmitter
    is a signaling molecule that influences membrane potential on its target cell
  21. Postsynaptic cells
    Often contain neurotransmitter receptors
  22. Presynaptic release of neurotransmitter
    Occurs via exocytosis
  23. A synapse
    is a target for some psychoactive drugs and neruotoxins and transmits signals from a neuron to a receiving cell
  24. Mechanosensors
    Produce different frequency of action potentials depending on intensity of a stimulus and Contain stretch-induced ion channels that lead to membrane depolarization when cells are deformed
  25. In sensory neurons
    the amplitude of graded potentials is proportional to the intensity of the input stimulus and the frequency of action potentials is proportional to the intensity of the input stimulus
  26. We detect tones because differnt sound frequencies do what?
    vibrate different parts of the cochlea, which are detected by many mechansensors.
  27. We dectect motion and postion becaue why?
    hair sensory cells detect the direction of fluid movement in our ears
  28. Folding of the mimosa (sensitive plant) leaves in response to touch is triggered by what?
    action potential
  29. A neurotoxin that stimulated acetocholine release would most likely cause what?
    muscle cramping
  30. Glucagon does what?
    promotes fat breakdown
  31. Insulin does what?
    triggers glucose uptake from blood
  32. The function of insulin and glucagon are examples of what?
    hormonal maintainence of homeostasis
  33. The function of the Thyroid hormone in amphibian morphogenesis is an example of what?
    hormones coordinating activities in distant parts of an organism
  34. The control of the pituitry secretions by the hypothalamus is an example of what?
    integration of neural and hormonal systems
  35. The proper sequence of events in amphibian metamorphosis is controlled by what?
    differential sensitivity to increasing thyroid hormone concentration
  36. The differencial responses to different tissues to thyroid hormone in amphibian metamorphosis might attribute to what?
    Different cells express different transcription factors that regulate expression of different genes in response to thyroid hormone
  37. Auxin does what?
    Promotes initiation in peristems, inhibits lateral bud outgrowth, and is controlled by transporters
  38. The promotion of leaf initiation at localized sites of
    meristems is controlled by
    • localized patterns of auxin transport controlled by
    • PIN proteins
  39. The hardness of vertebrates bones is due to what?
    mineralization of the extracellular matrix
  40. cross-bridges form between ____ and ___ during muscular contraction.
    actin and myosin
  41. Which of the following does NOT happen during a muscle contraction?
    A. The myosin heads bind to actin
    B. The myosin heads pull the thin filaments toward the
    C. The thick and thin filaments shorten
    center
    d. The sarcomere shortens
    e. The myofibril and the muscle shorten
    C. The thick and thin filaments shorten
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. What would happen to a myofibril if ATP were depleted from a muscle cell?
    Myosin could not release from actin
  43. When during a muscle contraction sequence is ATP hydrolyzed to provide power?
    Reactivation of myosin heads
  44. In a normal resting myofibril, what determines whether
    a contraction will occur?
    the exposure (availability) of myosin binding sites on the actin fibers
  45. Calcium in skeletal muscles does what?
    Regulates avalability of myosin binding sites on actin
  46. How do neurons establish differential concentrations of ions inside and outside the cell?
    Active transport
  47. How is Ca2+ concentrated in the sarcoplasmic reticulum?
    Active Transport
  48. An action potential in a muscle cell
    Triggers calcium release in the Sarcoplasmic reticulum
  49. Muscle relaxation requires what?
    ATP, calcium pumps, blocking myosin binding sites on actin filaments, and muscle cell membranes to be at resting potential
  50. Neuromuscular junctions involve what?
    an axon terminal, acetylcholine, and ligand grated ion channels

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