MCAT Bio 1.3
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Any species required by an enzyme to function.
- Binds at the active site
- Overcome by increasing substrate
- Binds away from the active site and changes the enzyme's shape
- Decreases efficiency
Binds covalently to the enzyme and permanently disables it
When the product of an enzymatic reaction series returns to activate the enzyme again; occurs less often than negative feedback.
A shutdown mechanism for a series of enzymatic reactions; when a series produces a sufficient amount of product it sends a signal back to stop it.
Blood glucose regulation
Inactive enzyme precursor. Keeps the enzyme inactive until it has finished folding/being transported to the right place
Regulation away from the active site. Feedback inhibitors do not resemble substrate of enzyme being inhibited, they bind and cause a conformational change. There are both allosteric inhibitors and activators.
Transfers PO₄³⁻ to a substrate - phosphorylates others
Removes PO₄³⁻ from a substrate - dephosphorylates others
The sum of all chemical reactions in the body.
The breakdown of macromolecules into smaller species to harvest energy.
An organism that can live in either an aerobic or an anaerobic environment (some types of bacteria; yeasts; individual human cells).
Organism that REQUIRES oxygen to grow (humans)
An organism that MUST live in an anaerobic environment.
Substrate Level Phosphorylation
Formation of ATP from direct transfer of a phosphate group from a phosphorylated intermediate onto ADP.
Oxidation energy is used to create a concentration gradient and use the stored energy from the concentration gradient to create ATP...although oxidation is coupled to phosphorylation in glycolysis, this is NOT an example of oxidative phosphorylation.
Sole route for many bacteria...used by animals ONLY during oxygen debt.
Ethanol is produced and is the final electron acceptor.
Lactic Acid Fermentation
Lactate is produced and is the final electron acceptor.
Occurs in the Mitochondria; and to a limited degree in the peroxisomes.
Super long fatty acids are broken into smaller lipids in peroxisomes and these pieces are sent back to the mitochondria where they undergo ß-oxidation.
Fatty acid continues to cycle through beta oxidation getting 2 carbons shorter each time until fatty acid is totaly gone.
Amino acids are broken down into acetyl CoA and fed into the Kreb's cycle.
Order of Metabolism
Healthy individuals burn carbohydrates first, then fats, then proteins.
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