Nutr 7-13

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  1. Acetyl-CoA
    if oxygen is present, pyruvate is converted to this and enters the TCA cycle.
  2. Alcohol effects
    • is class of organic compounds containg hydroxyl OH groups
    • may lead to alcoholism
    • may lead to birth disorders if ingested during pregnancy
    • may easily develop into abuse
  3. ammonia
    product of deamination which removes an amino group from amino acid
  4. anabolism
    reaction that combines simpler or smaller molecules into larger ones
  5. anion
    negatively charged ion
  6. antioxidant
    neutralizes free radicals to prevent cell damage
  7. basal metabolism
    energy needed to maintain life when a body is at complete digestive, physical, and emotional rest
  8. beta-carotene
    • precursor to Vitamin A
    • A carotenoid
    • Deep orange pigment
  9. bioavailability
    rate at and the extent to which a nutrient is absorbed and used
  10. biotin
    made by GI bacteria
  11. BMI
    • body mass index, [weight (lb)/height(in^2)]*703
    • healthy weight =18.5-24.9
    • underweight<18.5
    • overweight>25
    • obese>30
    • does not calculate for enlarged muscle mass
  12. BMR
    • basal metabolic rate
    • rate of energy use for metabolism under specified conditions after a 12 hour fast and restful sleep without physcial activity or emotional excitement in a comfortable setting
  13. Body composition
    proportions of muscle, bone, fat, and other tissue that make up a person's total body weight
  14. body fat
    • average for men13-21%
    • average for women 23-31%
  15. brown adipose
    • very little of this type of adipose in adults
    • releases stored energy as heat
  16. calcium
    • most abundant mineral in the body found primarily in body's bones and teeth
    • milk, milk products, fish, tofu, bok choy, broccoli, chard, legumes
    • mineralization of bones and teeth, muscle contraction and relaxation, nerve functioning, blood clotting, blood pressure
  17. catabolism
    reaction that breaks down complex molecules into simpler or smaller molecules
  18. cation
    negatively charged ion
  19. chloride
    • table salt, soy sauce. mod amt in meat, milk, eggs. lg amt in highly processed foods
    • maintains normal fluid and electrolyte balance, part of HCL in stomach for proper digestion
  20. chromium
    • chromium picolinate
    • trace mineral supplement
  21. copper
    trace mineral
  22. deamination
    process when an amino group is removed
  23. ECF
    extra-cellular fluid, water found outside cells, including blood, lymph
  24. electron transport chain
    last stage of glucose being converted to energy, with the largest output
  25. energy balance
    when energy consumed equals energy expended allowing for stable weight
  26. energy density
    • measure of the energy a food provides relative to the amount of food
    • kcal/gram
  27. energy expenditure
  28. fad diet
  29. fasting
    when not eating, body pulls nutrients from the body to survive
  30. fatty acid
    • three tails that make up a molecule of triglyceride(fat)
    • part of fat that cannot be made into glucose
    • rather divided into 2 carbon chains and enter as acetyl CoA into TCA cycle
  31. feasting
    • when person eats more than the body requires, so that the metabolism favors fat formation
    • excess amino acids, glucose are converted to fat
  32. fluoride
    • trace mineral
    • strengthens teeth
  33. folate
    • activated by B12 and activates B12
    • Typically fortified
  34. food as pharmacy
  35. food consumption
  36. free radicals
  37. gastric banding
    • size can be adjusted after surgery
    • reduces the opening into the stomach
    • requires a significant change in diet post-surgery
    • decreases amount of food intake and absorption
  38. gastric bypass
    • creates a small stomach that directly connects to the jejunum
    • decreases amount of food intake and absorption
    • requires a significant change in diet post-surgery
  39. ghrelin
    • promotes energy storage
    • stimulates appetite
    • signals sufficient energy stores
  40. glucose
    sugar required for metabolism, especially in the brain
  41. glycerol
    • triglyceride head on top of fatty acid tails
    • part that can be made into glucose
  42. glycolysis
    1st step of breaking down glucose into energy
  43. hunger
    sensation caused by lack of food
  44. hydrophilic
    • Water loving
    • vitamins not stored long
    • Must eat regularly
    • B vitamins: thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, B6, B12, Vit C, Folate
  45. hydrophobic
    • Fat loving
    • Stored in Fat
    • Should only eat once in awhile
    • ADEK
  46. hypothalamus
    control center for hunger and part of the brain
  47. ICF
    intra-cellular fluid, water found inside cells
  48. intra-abdominal fat
    • worst type of fat and hardest to rid the body of.
    • Normal for men
    • abnormal for women
    • fat around organs and midsection
    • increased risk of heart disease, stroke, diabetes, insulin resistance, and gallstones
  49. iodine
    • trace mineral
    • used in regulation of hormones of thyroid gland
  50. iron
    • trace mineral
    • needed for hemoglobin and myoglobin
    • carry and release O2 in blood in muscles
  51. ISF
    inter-stitial fluid, water found directly outside cells
  52. keto acid
    build up of carbons in muscle tissue due to lack of oxygen in blood during glycolysis
  53. lactate
    if oxygen is not present, pyruvate is converted to lactate rather than acetyl coA
  54. leptin
    suppresses the appetite
  55. liposuction
    • suction lipectomy
    • considered a cosmetic surgery
    • removal of adipose tissue
  56. LPL
    • lipopolylipase
    • removes triglycerides from blood for storage in adipose tissue
  57. magnesium
    trace mineral
  58. major mineral
    requires more than 5 grams in body are needed
  59. manganese
    • trace mineral
    • not found in seafood
    • found in whole grains
  60. metabolism
    sum of all chemical reactions in the body
  61. mineral
    • inorganic elements
    • some are essential nutrients but required in small amounts by the body for health
  62. niacin
    part of coenzyme NAD that helps to release energy
  63. orlistat
    inhibits pancreatic lipase in GI tract, blocking absorption of fat by 30%
  64. pantothenic acid
    part of coenzyme A
  65. phosphorus
    • trace mineral
    • aids in muscle contraction
    • controls pH balance
  66. physical activity
    bodily movement produced by muscle contractions that substantially increase energy expenditure
  67. potassium
    aids in nerve impules, muscle contraction, and fluid balance
  68. pyruvate
    at end of glycolysis, compound is formed of 3 carbons
  69. riboflavin
    part of coenzyme FAD tha helps to release energy
  70. satiation
    determines how much is eaten at a meal
  71. satiety
    determines how much time is between meals
  72. selenium
    • trace mineral
    • found in whole grains
    • minimal aid in hormones
  73. sibutramine
    slows reabsorption of serotonin in brain thus suppressing appetite and creating a feeling of fullness
  74. sodium
    • table salt, soy sauce, mod amount in meat, milk, bread, and veggies, lg amt in processed foods
    • maintain normal fluid and electrolyte balance, assist in nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction
  75. sulfur
    trace mineral
  76. TCA cycle
    after glycolysis, before electron transport chain
  77. thermogenesis
    generation of heat
  78. thiamine
    • part of coenzyme in energy metabolism to build or breakdown nutrients
    • part of coenzyme TPP that helps in energy metabolism
  79. trace mineral
    essential mineral nutrients human body requires in small amounts. less than 5g per day
  80. transamination
    amino acid modified by transfering amino group when a new amino acid is made
  81. triglyceride
    • fat molecule
    • 1 glycerol head, 3 fatty acid tails
  82. vitamin
    organic, essential nutrients required in tiny amoutns to perform specific functions that promote growth, reproduction, or the maintenance of health and life
  83. vitamin A
    • Retinoids-collective term for the different forms of vit A in the body
    • dark green leafy vegetables/yellow/orange vegetables
    • breaks down bones/reproduction/cell differentiation/vision
  84. vitamin B12
    • Protects nerve cells and can be made by GI bacteria
    • exclusively in food from animals
    • activates folate and activated by folate
    • Vegans would have to supplement
    • Protects nerves
    • Typically fortified
  85. vitamin B6
    • part of coenzymes that assist in amino acid metabolism
    • protects nerve cells and made by GI bacteria
  86. vitamin C
    • Antioxidant
    • Aids in collagen formation
    • Helps relieve stress
    • May help in protecting/healing from Common Cold
    • anti-histamine, adrenal glands, donate electrons, helps with scar formation
  87. vitamin D
    • body absorbs sunlight allowing formation of vitamin D in liver
    • fortified milk
    • increases blood levels of calcium and phosphorus
    • A hormone
  88. vitamin E
    antioxidant, found in vegetable oils
  89. vitamin K
    • found in dark green leafy vegetables/ milk products
    • helps with blood clotting
  90. waist circumference
    • +40 in men
    • +35 in women
    • increased risk of problems
  91. weight management
    • Accessibility
    • Variety
    • Package/Portion Size
    • Behaviors
    • Personal attitude
  92. weight loss plan
    • Avoid sugar and alcohol by avoiding empty calories
    • Help increase fullness and decrease hunger with water
    • Choose low fat options
    • Don't want to create starvation/deprivation through nutritional adequacy
    • Eat less through small portions
    • Foods with high fiber, low fat, high water through low energy density
    • Too rapid, may lose lean tissue so make sure you meet realistic energy intake
    • More energy to eat by focusing on fiber
  93. white adipose
    releases fat for energy
  94. zinc
    • trace mineral
    • found in whole grains
    • aids in immune function due to 100 enzymes that require it to function
  95. B vitamins made by GI bacteria
    • Biotin
    • Folate
    • B6
    • B12
  96. Part of energy Metabolism
    Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid
Card Set
Nutr 7-13
Bellingham Technical College
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