Perio-Spolsky.txt

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emm64
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151768
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Perio-Spolsky.txt
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2012-05-02 19:42:23
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Perio Spolsky Review
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Perio Spolsky Review
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  1. Based on longitudinal data, how much alveolar bone on the average would you expect an adult [who gets a thorough tooth cleaning (prophylaxis) 3-4 times per year] to lose per year?
    0.1-0.2mm
  2. What are the teeth with the highest accumulation of supragingival calculus?
    Lingual surface of the mandibular anteriors and buccal surface of maxillary molars
  3. If dental caries is an infectious disease that results in cavities or cavitation of the tooth, does surgical repair of the cavity cure the disease?
    NO
  4. Based on the NHANES IV data, using pocket depth as the definition of periodontal disease, what is the prevalence of periodontitis?
    20% have periodontitis, 50% have gingivitis
  5. A grade III furcation invasion also referred to as what?
    Through and through lesion, Furcation involvement
  6. 6. Although the original Extent and Severity Index (ESI) is no longer used to estimate periodontal disease, what did it serve as the basis for?
    Site specific, biphasic method of presenting data, future studies based off of this idea.
  7. 7. How is the prevalence and extent of periodontal disease (AL) related to increasing levels of education.?
    • Inverse relationship between prevalence of Periodontal disease and education
    • Higher Education, LESS disease
  8. 8. How is the severity of pocket depth or probe depth (PD) and attachment loss (AL) related with increasing age?
    • As you age, the PD very very slightly increases and AL increases dramatically
    • Severity increases with age
  9. 9. In general, how is AL different in females from males.
    Men usually have more attachment loss than females due to poorer oral hygiene
  10. 10. How is the prevalence and severity of periodontal disease in the United States compared to a world wide basis?
    Presence and severity of periodontal disease in the US is LOW compared to a worldwide basis
  11. 11. How does the prevalence and extent of periodontal disease (AL) change with increasing age?
    Attachment loss increases with increasing age
  12. 12. In general, how is the severity of AL related to increasing levels of education?
    • Inverse relationship between education and AL loss
    • More Education, less severity of AL
  13. 13. How does the periodontal disease experience of Blacks compare to that of Whites, based on the most recent analysis, even when the prevalence and extent of periodontal disease (AL) of Whites and Blacks of similar education are compared.
    Blacks have higher extent of AL than whites.
  14. 14. How does the prevalence and extent of periodontal disease (AL) relate to increasing levels of income?
    Inverse relationship between AL and income; higher income, less AL
  15. 15. How does the prevalence and extent of periodontal disease (AL) in urban areas relate to that in rural areas?
    Urban is lower than rural
  16. 16. What is the predominant subgingival bacterial plaque in chronic periodontitis?
    Gram negative, anaerobic bacteria; Porphyromas gingivalis
  17. 17. Histologically what is the most vulnerable part of the interproximal gingiva?
    Junctional Epithelium
  18. 18. What was the prevalence of disease “X” in 2006?
    • 2006 2007
    • Number of people with “disease” 45 75
    • Population at Risk 100 100
    • 45%
  19. 19. What was the prevalence of disease “X” in 2007?
    • 2006 2007
    • Number of people with “disease” 45 75
    • Population at Risk 100 100
    • 75%
  20. 20. What was the incidence of disease “X” from 2006 to 2007?
    • 2006 2007
    • Number of people with “disease” 45 75
    • Population at Risk 100 100
    • 30
  21. 21. What is the ordinal scale of measurement and what does it denote?
    Relative comparison between stages, no zero, allows for non-numerical comparison
  22. 22. What are signs of healthy gingival?
    -pink, scalloped, knife-edge margin, stippled and firm, CEJ +/-2mm, <3mm pocket depth, intact lamina dura, coronal to the CEJ
  23. 23. In periodontal health, what is the average radiographic distance between the CEJ and the interproximal bone crest?
    2mm
  24. 24. The Periodontal Disease Index (PDI) by Ramfjord and/or the Ramfjord teeth refers to measurements made on how many teeth?
    6 teeth, 3, 9, 12, 19, 25, 28
  25. 25. The Gingival Index (GI) was developed to assess the severity of gingival inflammation and considers what signs in assigning scores?
    • Inflammation, color, edema, bleeding
    • Scale 0-3
    • 0= normal, 1= mild inflammation, 2= moderate, 3= severe inflammation
  26. 26. The most effective use of the tapering end-tufted brush is to clean what?
    Back of the last molar or areas of edentulism
  27. 27. What is the attribute of the Braun Oral-B 3D Plaque Remover that makes it so effective?
    Oscillating Movement?
  28. 28. What are the two sites that are assessed per tooth (half-mouth examination) in the NHANES III surveys?
    Pocket Depth and Attachment loss at the MB and B sites
  29. 29. Bone loss in periodontitis is a result of what?
    Inflammation responseprostaglandins reabsorb bone, collagenase destroys collagen
  30. 30. What does a periodontal probe evaluate?
    Pocket Depth and gingival recession=AL; bleeding upon probing
  31. 31. What is a suitable alternative to flossing for a young adult (eg. 21 years old)?
    Stim-u-dents
  32. 32. Based on the NHANES IV data, what is the prevalence of periodontitis based on pocket depth?
    20%
  33. 33. What is the attachment level measurement in mm at the mid-buccal (B) site?
    • NOTE: Questions 33 and 34 deal with probe depth and gingival recession measurements taken in mm at the mesial-buccal (MB) and mid-buccal (B) sites (i.e., two of the six sites usually probed during the charting of the periodontium) to determine attachment level.
    • Site Recession Probe depth

    MB 2 5

    • B -3 7
    • AL= Pocket Depth-gingival recession 10
  34. 34. What is the attachment level measurement in mm at the mesial-buccal (MB) site?
    Site Recession Probe depth

    MB 2 5

    B -3 7




    3
  35. 35. The Plaque Index (PI) is unique because it measures what?
    Measures thickness of plaque at only the gingival 1/3 of a tooth
  36. 36. What criteria does the NIDCR use for assessing the periodontium?
    • Extent and Severity of attachment loss
    • Extent: number of teeth with deep pockets (% of teeth with AL)
    • Severity: how deep the pockets are (based on mm of AL)
  37. 37. What is the difference (in mm.) between the crest of the gingival margin (CGM) to the base of the pocket or junctional epithelium and the CGM to the CEJ is called?
    • Gingival recession=distance from the free gingival margin to the CEJ
    • If GM CORONAL to CEJ=positive number
    • If GM APICAL to CEJ=negative number
  38. 38. What does the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) measure?
    • Quantitates oral cleanliness
    • Based on surface area of tooth covered by plaque and calculus
  39. 39. What does the Extent and Severity Index (ESI) measure?
    • Extent and Severity of attachment loss
    • Extent: number of teeth with deep pockets (% of teeth with AL)
    • Severity: how deep the pockets are (based on mm of AL)
  40. 40. What is the method of brushing advocated in the UCLA Dental Clinic called?
    Bass Method
  41. 41. Current concepts of periodontal disease follow the Specific Plaque Hypothesis, whereas current therapy is based primarily on what?
    Still focuses on the control of the bacterial plaque (no plaque/no disease), non-specific bacterial plaque
  42. 42. Using the periodontal probe to measure from the crest of the gingival margin to the base of the sulcus yields what?
    Pocket Depth
  43. 43. Gingivitis reaches its highest prevalence during which age groups?
    12-17 years old (Adolescence)
  44. 44. What is the earliest sign of periodontal disease that should concern the clinician?
    Bleeding upon probing
  45. 45. What is the significance of the PMA index?
    • Developed to study GINGIVITIS!
    • Based on visual exam only
    • Assesses Location and Extent of gingivitis
  46. 46. How are pockets observed in gingivitis described?
    “Pseudo-Pockets”; may be greater than 3mm
  47. 47. What is the most important consideration in deciding on an appropriate interproximal cleaning aid for a patient?
    Size of the embrasures, patient willingness
  48. 48. (a) Does the visual inspection of gingival tissues of patients with gingivitis and periodontitis reveal similar deviations from health? (b) Is the radiographic appearance of teeth with periodontitis similar to those with gingivitis?
    • a) Yes, for the most part
    • b) NO, radiographic appearance will show bone loss in periodontitis compared to no bone loss with gingivitis.
  49. 49. What does the OHI-S (Greene-Vermillion) measure?
    • Quantitates oral cleanliness
    • Based on surface area of tooth covered by plaque and calculus
  50. 50. Based on the longitudinal study of periodontal disease in Sri Lanka, the proportion of people who experience rapid progression was? Also moderate progression? Also no progression beyond gingivitis?
    • Rapid Progression: 8% Prevalence 1.04 mm of AL/ year
    • Moderate Progression: 81%  0.3-0.5mm of AL/year
    • Very Little Progression: 11%--> 0.05mm of AL/year
  51. 51. What was the CAL associated with these 3 classifications of the natural history of periodontal diseases?
    • Rapid Progression: 8% Prevalence 1.04 mm of AL/ year
    • Moderate Progression: 81%  0.3-0.5mm of AL/year
    • Very Little Progression: 11%--> 0.05mm of AL/year

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