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  1. Equity theory
    The idea that employees try to maintain equity between inputs and outputs compared to others in similar positions.
  2. Expectancy theory
    Victor Vroom's theory that the amount of effort employees exert on a specific task depends on their expectations of the outcome.
  3. Extrinsic reward
    Something given to you by someone else as recognition for good work; extrinsic rewards include pay increases, praise, and promotions.
  4. Goal-setting theory
    The idea that setting ambitious but attainable goals can motivate workers and improve performance if the goals are accepted, accompanied by feedback, and facilitated by organizational conditions.
  5. Hawthorne effect
    The tendency for people to behave differently when they know they are being studied.
  6. Hygiene factors
    In Herzberg's theory of motivating factors, job factors that can cause dissatisfaction if missing but that do not necessarily motivate employees if increased.
  7. Intrinsic reward
    The personal satisfaction you feel when you perform well and complete goals.
  8. Job enlargement
    A job enrichment strategy that involves combining a series of tasks into one challenging and interesting assignment.
  9. Job enrichment
    A motivational strategy that emphasizes motivating the worker through the job itself.
  10. Job rotation
    A job enrichment strategy that involves moving employees from one job to another.
  11. Management by objectives (MBO)
    Peter Drucker's system of goal setting and implementation; it involves a cycle of discussion, review and evaluation of objectives among top and middle level managers, supervisors, and employees.
  12. Maslow's hierarchy of needs
    Theory of motivation based on unmet human needs from basic physiological needs to safety, social, and esteem needs to self-actualization needs.
  13. Motivators
    In Herzberg's theory of motivating factors, job factors that cause employees to be productive and that give them satisfaction.
  14. Principle of motion economy
    Theory developed by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth that every job can be broken down into a series of elementary motions.
  15. Reinforcement theory
    Theory that positive and negative reinforcers motivate a person to have in certain ways.
  16. Scientific management
    Studying workers to find the most efficient way of doing things and then teaching people those techniques.
  17. Time-motion studies
    Studies, begun by Frederick Taylor, of which tasks must be performed to complete a job and the time needed to do each task.
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Business Ch10 Terms
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