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2012-05-02 19:47:17
Ch12 Terms

Business Ch12 Terms
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  1. Agency shop agreement
    Clause in a labor-management agreement that says employers may hire nonunion workers; employees are not required to join the union but must pay a union fee.
  2. American Federation of Labor (AFL)
    An organization of craft unions that championed fundamental labor issues; founded in 1886
  3. Arbitration
    The agreement to bring in an impartial third party (a single arbitrator or a panel of arbitrators) to render a binding decision in a labor dispute.
  4. Bargaining zone
    The range of options between the initial and final offer that each party will consider before negotiations dissolve or reach an impasse.
  5. Certification
    Formal process whereby a union is recognized by the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) as the bargaining agent for a group of employees.
  6. Closed shop agreement
    Clause in a labor-management agreement that specified workers had to be members of a union before being hired (was outlawed by the Taft-Hartley Act in 1947).
  7. Collective bargaining
    The process whereby union and management representatives form a labor-management agreement, or contract, for workers.
  8. Congress of Industrial Organization (CIO)
    Union organization of unskilled workers; broke away from the American Federation of Labor (AFL) in 1935 and rejoined it in 1955.
  9. Cooling-off period
    When workers in a critical industry return to their jobs while the union and management continue negotiations.
  10. Craft union
    An organization of skilled specialists in a particular craft or trade.
  11. Decertification
    The process by which workers take away a union's right to represent them.
  12. Givebacks
    Concessions made by union members to management; gains from labor negotiations are given back to management to help employers remain competitive and thereby save jobs.
  13. Grievance
    A charge by employees that management is not abiding by the terms of the negotiated labor-management agreement.
  14. Industrial unions
    Labor organizations of unskilled and semiskilled workers in mass-production industries such as automobiles and mining.
  15. Injunction
    A court order directing someone to do something or to refrain from doing something.
  16. Knights of Labor
    The first national labor union; formed in 1869.
  17. Lockout
    An attempt by management to put pressure on unions by temporarily closing the business.
  18. Mediation
    The use of a third party, called a mediator, who encourages both sides in a dispute to continue negotiating and often makes suggestions for resolving the dispute.
  19. Negotiated labor-management agreement (labor contract)
    Agreement that sets the tone and clarifies the terms under which management and labor agree to function over a period of time.
  20. Open shop agreement
    Agreement in right-to-work states that gives workers the option to join or not join a union, if one exists in their workplace.
  21. Primary boycott
    When a union encourages both its members and the general public not to buy the products of a firm involved in a labor dispute.
  22. Right-to-work laws
    Legislation that gives workers the right, under an open shop, to join or not join a union if it is present.
  23. Secondary boycott
    An attempt by labor to convince others to stop doing business with a firm that is the subject of a primary boycott; prohibited by the Taft-Hartley Act.
  24. Sexual harassment
    Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other conduct (verbal or physical) of a sexual nature that creates a hostile work environment.
  25. Shop stewards
    Union officials who work permanently in an organization and represent employee interests on a daily basis.
  26. Strike
    A union strategy in which workers refuse to go to work; the purpose is to further workers' objectives after an impasse in collective bargaining.
  27. Strikebreakers
    Workers hired to do the jobs of striking workers until the labor dispute is resolved.
  28. Union
    An employee organization that has the main goal of representing members in employee-management bargaining over job-related issues.
  29. Union security clause
    Provision in a negotiated labor-management agreement that stipulates that employees who benefit from a union must either officially join or at least pay dues to the union.
  30. Union shop agreement
    Clause in a labor-management agreement that says workers do not have to be members of a union to be hired, but must agree to join the union within a prescribed period.
  31. Yellow-dog contract
    A type of contract that required employees to agree as a condition of employment not to join a union; prohibited by the Norris-LaGuardia Act in 1932.