Bio Review

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Bio Review
2012-05-02 21:40:15

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  1. the ________ is the amino acid manages of all
    the codons, each of which directs the incorporation of amino acid during
    protein synthesis
    Genetic Code
  2. The enzyme that catalyzes the covalent bonding
    of free RNA nucleotides into a continuous strand, using the sequence of bases
    in DNA as a template, is called
    RNA Polymerase
  3. The hypothesis that each gene encodes
    information (as a sequence of bases) needed for making one specific protein (amino acid sequence) is the
    One-Gene One-Protein
  4. A ______ is a sequence of three nucleotides in
    transfer RNA that is complementary to the three nucleotides in messenger
  5. The process in which a sequence of nucleotide
    bases in mRNA is converted into a sequence of amino acids in a protein is
  6. The mRNA _____ is AUG coding for the first amino
    acid in a protein. Three codons (UAG,UAA,UGA) are mRNA ______, signals that the
    protein's amino acid sequence is completed.
    Start Codon

    Stop Codon
  7. A molecule of _______ is a strand of
    nucleotides, complementary to the DNA of a gene, that conveys genetic information to ribosomes to be used to sequence amino acids during protein
  8. ________ is the synthesis of RNA molecule from a
    DNA template.
  9. A change in the base sequence of DNA is a
  10. A molecule that bonds to a specific amino acid
    and has a set of three nucleotides, complementary to the codon for that amino acid is known as ______.
    Transfer RNA
  11. In a __________, a pair of bases becomes
    incorrectly matched; ________ occur when one or more new nucleotide pairs are added into a gene; a _________ occurs when one or more nucleotide pairs are removed from a gene.
    Point Mutation

    Insertion Mutation

    Deletion Mutation
  12. A ______ is a sequence of three nucleotides of
    mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid to be incorporated into a protein.
  13. An organelle with two subunits, each composed
    of RNA and protein, that serves as site of protein synthesis is a _______.
  14. The building blocks of DNA and RNA are monomers called _______.
  15. A nucleotide contains a phosphate group
    covalently linked to a 5-C _____ which is covalently linked to a nitrogen containing ______.

  16. DNA consists of ___ chains of nucleotides
    and is called a double _____.

  17. The sugar-phosphate backbones are _______ (run
    in opposite directions).
  18. The genetic information in DNA directs the
    synthesis of all ______ in an organism.
  19. DNA is copied every time a cell reproduces or
    divides in a process called _______.
  20. Replication begins when enzymes called DNA
    ______ unzip the DNA molecule.
  21. In order for the daughter strands to be
    synthesized, primase adds an RNA _____ to both parent strands get daughter strand synthesis initiated.
  22. DNA _______ is the enzyme which adds DNA
    nucleotides to the parent template strands according to complementary base pairing.
  23. In a replication fork, one strand is
    synthesized continuously toward the replication fork and is called the _______ strand.
  24. The lagging strand is synthesized away from the
    fork in short peices called Okazaki fragments which are enentually covalently linked together by the enzyme ________.
  25. The model of DNA replication is called _________
    since each new molecule is composed of one old parent strand and one new daughter strand.
  26. _______ are repetitive nucleotide sequences at
    each end of a DNA molecule that postpone repition of genes near ends as DNA gets shorter with each round of replication.
  27. Enzyme DNA polymerase proof reads each
    nucleotide that is added against its template some errors and damages are corrected by DNA _______.
    Repair enzymes
  28. An organisms unique genetic code is the sequence
    of ____ ____ in their DNA which contains the information for building proteins.
    Nitrogenous Bases
  29. Proteins are synthesized in all cells on
    organelles called ________.
  30. Synthesis of proteins requires the information
    in DNA as well as three types of _____.
  31. Once a gene is transcribed in a eukaryote, the
    ________ or noncoding sequences must be removed from mRNA and the coding sequences called _______ must be spliced together.

  32. The enzyme which catalyzes transcription is
    called ____ _________.
    RNA Polymerase
  33. The two main steps of _____ _____ include
    transcription and translation.
    Gene expression
  34. The transfer of genetic information from DNA to
    mRNA is called ______.
  35. Ribonucleic acid is single stranded and is
    composed of RNA nucleotides each composed of a 5-C sugar called ______, a phosphate group, and one of four nitrogenous bases which include C, G, A and __.

  36. During translation the _________ of tRNA pairs
    with a codon of mRNA, which brings an amino acid into place in a polypeptide
  37. Cytogenetics
    The field of genetics that involoves the microscopic examination of chromosomes and cell division.
  38. Karyotype
    Revels the number, size and form of chromosomes found within an actively dividing cell.
  39. Autosomes
    The chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes
  40. Diploid
    • When the cells of an organism carry two sets of
    • chromosomes (human cells)
  41. Metaphase
    • Pairs of sister chromatids are aligned along the middle plain called the metaphase plate. Organized into a single row, when this is
    • complete the cell is in metaphase.
  42. Anaphase
    • Pair of sister chromatids break apart at centromere. Spindle microtubules shorten, pulling the chromatids apart and toward opposite
    • poles.
  43. Telophase
    Chromatids have reached their respective poles and decondense. Nuculear membranes now reform to produce two separate nuclei .
  44. Cytokinesis
    • Cell membrane and cytoplasm is cleaved to from
    • two distinct cells.
  45. Animal Cytokinesis
    A process called cleavage furrow constricts the membrane like a drawstring to separate the cells.
  46. Plant Cytokinesis
    • Cell plate forms a cell wall between the two
    • daughter cells.
  47. Prophase
    Chromosomes have already replicated to produce chromatids. Nuclear membrane begins breakdown, Chromatids condense into highly compacted structures that are readily visible by light microscopy. Mitotic spindle and centrioles from.
  48. Interphase
    Prior to metaphase , includes g1, s and g2 phases of the cell cycle. The chromosomes are decondensed and found in the nucleus.
  49. Mitosis
    The division of one nucleus into two nuclei and then cytokinesis in which the mother cell divides into two daughter cells.
  50. Mitosis Cell Division
    A cell divides to produce two new cells (The daughter cells) that are genetically identical to the original cell (the mother cell) .