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2012-05-03 00:34:44
seizure epilepsy clonic tonic

Chapter 44: Seizures,
Show Answers:

  1. What are three broad categories of seizures?
    Generalized seizure, partial seizure, and an unclassified seizure.
  2. What are the six types of generalized seizrues?
    tonic-clonic, tonic, clonic, absent, myoclonic, and atonic.
  3. What happens in a tonic-clonic seizure?
    It first begins with the tonic phase that causes stiffening or rigidity of the muscles, and immediate loss of conciousness. It may last from 2-5minutes. Then clonic, rhythm like jerking of all extremities follow. Patient may bite tongue and become incontinent of urine or feces.
  4. What is a tonic seizure?
    An abrupt increase in muscle tone, loss of consciousness, and autonomic changges lasting from 30s to mins.
  5. What is clonic seizure?
    In clonic seizure the patients muscles contract and then relax. These patients may fall to the ground, may foam at the mouth, and they can not swallow. The seizure lasts for several minutes.
  6. What is an absence seizure?
    A seizure that normally occurs in childern and tends to run in families. Its when the patient has brief loss of consciousness (often just seconds) and blank staring as though they are daydreaming. Patient's eyes may flutter and automatisms (involuntary behaviors) such as lip smacking may occur.
  7. What is a myoclonic seizure?
    A brief jerking or stiffening of the extremities that may occur singly or in groups. The contractions may be symmetric or asymmetric. The seizures last for seconds.These type of seizures can be caused by environmental factors (flashing lights, amusement park rides, etc.)
  8. What is an atonic (akinetic) seizure?
    The patient has a sudden loss of muscle tone, lasting for seconds, followed by post ictal confusion. These seizures cause patients to fall and is resistent to drug therapy.
  9. What are partial seizures?
    Focal or local seizures that begin in part of one cerebral hemisphere.
  10. What are two main classes of partial seizures?
    Complex partial and Simple partial
  11. What happens in complex partial seizures?
    The patient may have loss of consciousness or syncope for 1-3mins, lip smacking, eyelid fluttering may occur, patient may be unaware of environment and wander at the start of the seizure. After the seizure, the patient may experience amnesia. These seizures are difficult to diagnose.
  12. What are simple partial seizures?
    Seizures in which the patient remains conscious. Patient often reports an aura before the seizure takes place.