what is the study of animal behavior with emphasis on the behavioral patterns that occur in natural environments
what is evolutionary behavioral homology?
we share behaviors and their underlying genes with common ancestors,
what is instinctual behaviors?
genetic cause for many behaviors
instinctual behavior has what characteristics?
-triggered by specific stimuli
-produce specific behaviors
-does not involve learning
-involves sign stimuli
-inate releasing mechanisms produce fixed action pattern
what is sign stimuli
Environmental factors that evoke instinctual behavior
what is an inate releasing mechanism?
genetically determined neural networks that when triggered by a sign stimulus, produce a specific behavior called a fixed action pattern (FAP)
the process of developing a behavioral response based on experience
What are the different types of learning?
what is conditioning?
- Learned behavioral response to a novel or substituted stimulus
- Uses reward as a basis for learning
what are the types of conditioning
what is classical conditioning?
- is passive; learns a new stimulus to trigger the existing behavior
-Pavlov’s dog experiments
what is operant conditioning?
-The animal must perform an act (behavior) in response to a stimulus to get the reward
- The reward follows the behavior, not the stimulus
- It is an active process; the animal must do something specific to get the reward
- The animal learns to associate the reward with the behavior
what is the difference betweeen conditioning being generalized or discriminating?
-Generalized conditioning occurs when the animal responds to similar stimuli (dog salivates in response to any colored light)
- Discriminating conditioning occurs when animal responds to a specific stimulus (dog salivates to blue, but not red light)
what is Habituation (acclimation/nonassociative learning) learning?
learning not to respond to a stimulus
what is latent learning?
learning in the absence of a an immediate reward
what is imprinting learning?
-a rapid learning that occurs only at specific stages of development
- Imprinting occurs by the types of learning discussed already, but is influenced by genetics, development, hormones, and other factors
what is insight learning?
when an animal solves a problem without experience, without trial and error, the animal solves the problem or practices trial and error in its mind.
what is memory?
-the storage and retrieval of information
what is the anatomical-physiological change that accompanies learning
what are the two types of memory?
-short term memory
-long term memory
where is memory first stored and how long does it last there?
Information is first stored in short-term memory where its neurological effects last about an hour, after which the system will return to normal (one forgets).
what is consolidaton?
when memory is shifted within the first hour and its engram forms
how is short term memory created?
by “reverberating” circuits of neurons. These circuits include positive feedback loops that increase the activity of certain stimuli.
which type of memory does and does not leave an engram?
short term memory does not leave an engram. long term memory does produce an engram.
what isthe difference between proximate and ultimate causation?
-Proximate causes are the immediate causes for a behavior – the sign stimuli, physiological, and psychological factors that result in behavior
what are some common behaviors among animals?
-foraging behavior (search for food)
what does it mean for an animal to be a generalist?
able to eat different types of food. they lear from learning not by instict.
what does it mean for an animal to be a specialist?
able to feed on only a very specific type for food.
what kinds of things are communicated
how do animals communicate visually?
how do animals communicate?
how can chemicals be used to communicate
what is the difference between iterspecific aggression and interspecific aggression?
-intraspecific is usually ritualistic
-interspecific usually includes predation or territorial defense
what are some important things is social dominance hierarchy?
what are the types of inactivity?
-hybernation-slow doew metabolism and lowering of body temp. for extended period of time. GYE
-dormancy-mild slowing of metabolism with arousal for eating and drinking GYE
-estivation-reduced activity due to temperature. no GYE
what are circadian rythems?
Circadian rhythms are 24-hour day-night behavioral and physiological cycles that are genetically based for all species – these rhythms are very difficult to change substantially, or for long periods of time.