Animal Behaviors

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  1. what is the study of animal behavior with emphasis on the behavioral patterns that occur in natural environments
  2. what is evolutionary behavioral homology?
    we share behaviors and their underlying genes with common ancestors,
  3. what is instinctual behaviors?
    genetic cause for many behaviors
  4. instinctual behavior has what characteristics?
    • -largely genetic
    • -triggered by specific stimuli
    • -produce specific behaviors
    • -does not involve learning
    • -involves sign stimuli
    • -inate releasing mechanisms produce fixed action pattern
  5. what is sign stimuli
    Environmental factors that evoke instinctual behavior
  6. what is an inate releasing mechanism?
    genetically determined neural networks that when triggered by a sign stimulus, produce a specific behavior called a fixed action pattern (FAP)
  7. define learning
    the process of developing a behavioral response based on experience
  8. What are the different types of learning?
    • -conditioning
    • -habituation
    • -latent
    • -imprinting
    • -insight
  9. what is conditioning?
    • -Associative learning
    • - Learned behavioral response to a novel or substituted stimulus
    • - Uses reward as a basis for learning
  10. what are the types of conditioning
    • -classical
    • -operant
  11. what is classical conditioning?
    • - is passive; learns a new stimulus to trigger the existing behavior
    • -Pavlov’s dog experiments
  12. what is operant conditioning?
    • -The animal must perform an act (behavior) in response to a stimulus to get the reward
    • - The reward follows the behavior, not the stimulus
    • - It is an active process; the animal must do something specific to get the reward
    • - The animal learns to associate the reward with the behavior
  13. what is the difference betweeen conditioning being generalized or discriminating?
    • -Generalized conditioning occurs when the animal responds to similar stimuli (dog salivates in response to any colored light)
    • - Discriminating conditioning occurs when animal responds to a specific stimulus (dog salivates to blue, but not red light)
  14. what is Habituation (acclimation/nonassociative learning) learning?
    learning not to respond to a stimulus
  15. what is latent learning?
    learning in the absence of a an immediate reward
  16. what is imprinting learning?
    • -a rapid learning that occurs only at specific stages of development
    • - Imprinting occurs by the types of learning discussed already, but is influenced by genetics, development, hormones, and other factors
  17. what is insight learning?
    when an animal solves a problem without experience, without trial and error, the animal solves the problem or practices trial and error in its mind.
  18. what is memory?
    -the storage and retrieval of information
  19. what is the anatomical-physiological change that accompanies learning
  20. what are the two types of memory?
    • -short term memory
    • -long term memory
  21. where is memory first stored and how long does it last there?
    Information is first stored in short-term memory where its neurological effects last about an hour, after which the system will return to normal (one forgets).
  22. what is consolidaton?
    when memory is shifted within the first hour and its engram forms
  23. how is short term memory created?
    by “reverberating” circuits of neurons. These circuits include positive feedback loops that increase the activity of certain stimuli.
  24. which type of memory does and does not leave an engram?
    short term memory does not leave an engram. long term memory does produce an engram.
  25. what isthe difference between proximate and ultimate causation?
    • -Proximate causes are the immediate causes for a behavior – the sign stimuli, physiological, and psychological factors that result in behavior
    • -
  26. what are some common behaviors among animals?
    • -foraging behavior (search for food)
    • -communication
    • -aggression
    • -territorial
    • -inactivity
  27. what does it mean for an animal to be a generalist?
    able to eat different types of food. they lear from learning not by instict.
  28. what does it mean for an animal to be a specialist?
    able to feed on only a very specific type for food.
  29. what kinds of things are communicated
    • -emotional
    • -sexual
    • -identity
  30. how do animals communicate visually?
    • -coloration
    • -movement
    • -posture
    • -eye contact
    • -facial expression
  31. how do animals communicate?
    • -visually
    • -sound
    • -chemically
  32. how can chemicals be used to communicate
    • -pheramones (sexual)
    • -fear
    • -territorial
  33. what is the difference between iterspecific aggression and interspecific aggression?
    • -intraspecific is usually ritualistic
    • -interspecific usually includes predation or territorial defense
  34. what are some important things is social dominance hierarchy?
    • -self awarness
    • -aggression
    • -individual recognition
  35. what are the types of inactivity?
    • -hybernation-slow doew metabolism and lowering of body temp. for extended period of time. GYE
    • -dormancy-mild slowing of metabolism with arousal for eating and drinking GYE
    • -estivation-reduced activity due to temperature. no GYE
  36. what are circadian rythems?
    • Circadian rhythms are 24-hour day-night behavioral and physiological cycles that are genetically based for all species – these rhythms are very difficult to change substantially, or for long periods of time.
    • -nocturnal
    • -diurnal
    • -crepuscular (dawn and dusk)
    • -
Card Set:
Animal Behaviors
2012-05-03 02:28:31
Animal Behaviors

Animal Behaviors
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