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What characteristics of neonates allow them to be more resistant to hypoxia? 3
- Lower cerebral metabolic activity
- Ability to utilize lactate as substrate for energy
- High content of absorbate which may be protective
What are the two basic groups of hemorrhage? 2
- Those affecting the integrity of blood vessels
- Those affecting the coaguability of the blood vessels
In generalized edema of the brain is severe, what happens to the cerebellum (lipping)?
Medulla oblongata and the posterior portion of the vermis herniate through the foramen magnum
Intracellular or cytotoxic edema is mainly in what cells?
Where in the brain is vasogenic edema usually (allows the leakage of plasma and protein into the interstitial tissue)?
Predominately in white matter
In what diseases are thrombosis and embolisms common? 7
- Atrial and aortic thrombosis (cats)
- Fracture of long bones
- Fibrocartilagenous embolic myelopathy (dogs)
- Erysipelas (pigs)
- Sleep foal disease
- Pasteurellosis (ruminants and pigs)
- Septicemias caused by Haemophilus spp. and coliforms
What are some consequences of an inflammatory response in the CNS? 5
- Pronounced vascular response
- Perivascular cuffing
- Neuronal degeneration/death
What is the most characteristic lesion of a Histophilus infection (Thrombotic meningoencephalitis)?
What cells does listeriosis affect most and where are lesions most severe? 2
- Monocytes and Macrocytes affected most
- Most severe lesions in the medulla and pons
What causative agent causes enterotoxemia leading to (primary pattern) hemorrhage and softening of the basal ganglia, internal capsule, dorsal lateral thalamus, substantia nigra or (secondary lesion) lysis and liquefaction of the white matter of the frontal gyri which spares only the common "U" fibers?
Clostridium perfringens type D
What is the causative agent behind Edema disease (entertoxemic colibacillosis of pigs)?
What type of necrosis is associated with Edema disease?
In neonates, what is the general result of viral infections of the CNS?
Lytic, affecting the gray matter and cause rapid death
Viral infections of the CNS later in life generally present, how?
Infections localize in the white matter and cause prolonged lingering disease
What type of exudate is mainly seen in viral infections of the CNS? 3
- Plasma cells
What free-living rhabditiform nematode infests the nasal cavity, CNS and kidney of horses?
What are some common insect larvae that can invade the CNS? 3
- Oestrus ovis (sheep)
- Hypoderma bovis (cow
- Cuterebra spp. (dog and cat)
What is the causative agent behind Sarcocystosis (equine protozoal encephalomyelitis), a disease affecting the spinal cord of young adult horses?
What small, crescent shaped parasite causes CNS lesions that include hemorrhage, infarcts, edema and nonsuppurative inflammation?
What parasite causes meningoencephalomyelitis (horses), polyradiculoneuritis and polymyositis (dogs), and multifocal necrosis (cattle)?
What parasite causes blastomycosis, characterized by granulomatous lesions in the lung and brain of dogs and cats?
What is the most common fungal infection of the brain and it's causative agent?
Cryptococcosis (Cryptococcus neoformans)
What fungus has a foamy bubbly appearance in the brain and is viewed microscopically as thick-walled, yeast-like bodies surrounded by a wide gelatinous capsule?