BIO 100 Study Guide

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BIO 100 Study Guide
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2012-05-03 02:21:27
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Biology
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  1. What kinds of plants are considered CAM plants?
    Cactus
  2. What is entropy? How is it increased or decreased?
    Entropy is disorganization. Energy is required to decrease entropy.
  3. What processes are involved in cell division?
    • Mitosis
    • Interphase:
    • Longest part of mitosis
    • Prep for division
    • Organelles double, DNA replicates, synthesis of proteins
    • Prophase
    • Chromatin condenses to chromosomes
    • Spindles begin forming
    • Spindles separate centrioles
    • Metaphase
    • Chromosomes align at cell equator
    • Anaphase
    • Sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite poles
    • Each chromatid is independent chromosome
    • Telophase
    • Daughter chromosomes arrive at opposite poles
    • Nuclear membrane reforms
    • Cytokinesis
    • Plants - Cell plate forms
    • Animals - Cleavage furrow forms
  4. What is metabolism?
    All chemical processes within an organism
  5. What are the parts of an atom, atomic number, and atomic mass?
    • Nucleus: protons and neutrons
    • Electron cloud: electrons
    • Atomic number: number of protons
    • Atomic mass: mass of protons and neutrons added together
  6. How many ATP are produced in glycolysis
    2
  7. In photosynthesis, when is water split and oxygen released
    Light dependent reactions
  8. What happens to a cell in an isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic solution
    • Isotonic: no change
    • Hypotonic: swell
    • Hypertonic: shrink
  9. What happens in the citric acid cycle?
    Exhaust (CO2) is formed
  10. What is the difference between transcription and translation
    • Transcription:
    • In nucleus
    • DNA to mRNA

    • Translation:
    • In cytoplasm
    • mRNA to protein
  11. What are autotroph, heterotroph, producer, and consumer?
    Autotroph: an organism capable of making organic nutritional substances from simple inorganic substances like carbon

    Heterotroph: an organism who must get its nutritional requirements from complex organic substances

    Producer: an organism that can make is own food

    Consumer: an organism who must consume another organism for food
  12. What is the difference and phenotypes of a monohybrid and dihybrid cross?
    Monohybrid: 3:1, one trait

    Dihybrid: 9:3:3:1, two traits
  13. What are the reactants and products of photosynthesis?
    Reactants: CO2 + H2O

    Products: C6H12O6 + O2
  14. What organelle is important for intracellular transport?
    Endoplasmic reticulum
  15. Who discovered the structure of DNA?
    Watson and Crick
  16. What is a testcross?
    A dominant trait (phenotype) is observed, but the genotype is unknown. It is crossed with a homozygous recessive organism and the offspring is observed
  17. What enzyme is involved with DNA replication?
    DNA polymerase
  18. What nucleotide bases pair together?
    • Adenine - Thymine (Uracil)
    • Cytosine - Guanine
  19. What is it called when a piece of one chromosome moves to a non-homologous chromosome?
    Translocation
  20. In what phases to variation take place?
    • Prophase I: crossing over
    • Metaphase I: independent assortment
  21. What are the reactants and products of aerobic cellular respiration?
    Reactants: C6H12O6 + O2

    Products: CO2 + H2O
  22. What are the different levels of protein synthesis?
    • Primary: strand
    • Secondary: beta pleated sheet/helix
    • Tertiary: 3D
    • Quaternary: 2 or more proteins bonded
  23. What does the 2nd law of thermodynamics state?
    • Energy is lost in the form of heat and cannot be used
    • Energy must be input for organization
    • The amount of disorder is always increasing
  24. What is the function of the ribosome?
    Protein synthesis
  25. Which stage of respiration produces the most ATP?
    Electron transport system
  26. When would fermentation happen?
    When no oxygen is present
  27. What is the correct order of the steps of the scientific method?
    Observation, hypothesis, test, conclusion
  28. What are the main sources of genetic variation?
    Meiosis and crossing over
  29. What are the main photosynthetic pigments?
    Chlorophyll A & B, and carotenoids
  30. What kind of cells are the egg and sperm?
    Gametes
  31. What is chemiosmosis?
    Accumulation of H+ in the thylakoid space that move to the stroma through the ATP synthase complex
  32. What are the nucleotide bases in DNA and RNA?
    • Adenine
    • Thymine (Uracil in RNA)
    • Cytosine
    • Guanine
  33. What is cytokinesis in both plants and animals?
    • Division of the cytoplasm
    • Animals: cleavage furrow
    • Plants: cell plate
  34. What causes an atom to become an ion?
    The gain or loss of an electron
  35. What does the cell theory state?
    New cells come only from preexisting cells
  36. What is a gene mutation?
    An alteration in the normal sequence of bases within a gene
  37. What organelles are in a plant cell, but not in an animal cell and vice versa?
    • Animal: centrioles, lysozomes
    • Plant: cloroplasts, cell wall, central vacuole
  38. What stores starch in plant cells?
    Large central vacuole
  39. What is a karyotype?
    A photograph of a chromosome set
  40. What is the structure, shape, and reproduction of bacteria?
    Bacteria have a cell wall, no nucleus, a single circular DNA, and reproduce asexually by binary fission
  41. What is unique about enzymes?
    Enzymes are made of protein, speed up reactions, and don't get used up.
  42. What are the parts of a reaction?
    Reactants and products
  43. What are the uses of biochemistry?
    Clean up oil spills, increase soil fertility, engineer pland DNA to resist pests and cold, and obtain minerals in mining
  44. What to the genes on the Y chromosome determine?
    Maleness
  45. What is the structure of DNA?
    • The rungs are nucleotide bases (ATCG)
    • The arms are deoxyribose sugars and phosphate
  46. What is the process of DNA to RNA to protein in relation to nucleotide bases?
    DNA is in the nucleus, mRNA makes the complement (replacing T with U). mRNA travels to cytoplasm and goes through ribosome. tRNA finds correct amino acid based on anticodon, and assembles the protein on the ribosome.
  47. What is the induced-fit model?
    The active site undergoes a slight change in shape
  48. What is the difference between mitosis and meiosis?
    • Mitosis: body cells, diploid to diploid (2n to 2n), one division
    • Meiosis: gametes, diploid to haploid (2n to n), two divisions
  49. What is ATP and what is the cycle it has with ADP?
    • ATP: energy for the cell
    • ATP donates phosphate, becomes ADP, ADP waits for phosphate, becomes ATP
  50. What is the order of classification?
    Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
  51. What is active transport?
    Movement against the concentration gradient. Requires energy
  52. What is the atomic number?
    The number of protons
  53. What is haploid vs. diploid?
    • Haploid: 1/2 the number of chromosomes
    • Diploid: all chromosomes
  54. What is NAD
    A co-enzyme
  55. What does DNA ligase do?
    Links together fragments of DNA
  56. What is prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic?
    • Prokaryotic: no defined nucleus
    • Eukaryotic: difined nucleus
  57. What are the parts of a virus?
    Protein coat (capsid), and either DNA or RNA
  58. In cell division, when does the DNA duplicate?
    During interphase
  59. What type of transport are carrier molecules needed for?
    Facillitated diffusion and active transport
  60. What is Mendel's law of segregation?
    Two members of an allelic pair are distributed to separate gametes
  61. Why are plants green?
    They reflect green wavelengths
  62. What are the functions of cell organelles?
    • Nucleus: stores DNA
    • Ribosomes: protein synthesis
    • Golgi Apparatus: collects, sorts, packages, and distributes material
    • Lysosomes: garbage disposal of cells
    • Vacuoles: stores substances
    • Peroxisomes: break down molecules producing hydrogen peroxide
    • Chloroplast: photosynthesis
    • Mitochondria: cellular respiration
    • Cytoskeleton: maintains cell shape
  63. What is the difference between ionic and covalent bonds?
    • Ionic: transfer of electrons
    • Covalent: sharing of electrons
  64. What is an example of a bacterial vector?
    Plasmid
  65. What does the calvin cycle need to run?
    CO2 + energy (NADPH and ATP)
  66. What are oxidation and reduction (redox) reactions?
    • OILRIG
    • Oxidation: oxygen is lost
    • Reduction: oxygen is gained
  67. What is the difference between a C3 plant and a C4 plant?
    • C3: oxygen gets in the way of RUBP in warm climates
    • C4: bundle sheath cell delivers carbon to calvin cycle, oxygen does not get in the way
  68. What is an example of multiple allele inheritance?
    Blood type
  69. What are enzymes made of?
    Protein
  70. What are four reactions in aerobic cellular respiration?
    Glycolysis, transition (prep) cycle, citric acid cycle, electron transport system
  71. What are the differences between spermatogenesis and oogenesis?
    • Spermatogenesis: 4 sperm produced
    • Oogenesis: 1 egg and up to 3 polar bodies produced
  72. What effects an enzyme and how does it work?
    • Temperature, concentration, pH affect enzymes
    • They are very specific and help in all reactions
  73. What is used to clean up beaches after an oil spill?
    Transgenic bacteria
  74. In terms of DNA, what does semi-conservative mean?
    One original strand of DNA is preserved in the daughter cell
  75. What is an allele?
    An alternate form of a gene
  76. What is a genotype vs. a phenotype?
    • Genotype: actual genes
    • Phenotype: observable traits
  77. What is exergonic vs. endergonic?
    • Exergonic: output of energy (spontaneous)
    • Endergonic: input of energy
  78. What does the 1st law of thermodynamics state?
    Energy cannot be created or destroyed
  79. What does RuBP do?
    RuBP combines with CO2 to form a 6-carbon compound
  80. What are the flattened sacks within a chloroplast called?
    Thylakoid
  81. What is the pH scale and the difference between hydrogen to hydroxide ions?
    • H+ H+ = OH OH
    • 1 - 7 - 14
    • Acid Neutral Base
  82. What is apoptosis?
    Programmed cell death
  83. What kind of reaction occurs when two glucose molecules combine?
    Condensation reaction
  84. What are the three major domains of life?
    Bacteria, archaea, eukarya
  85. Where does glycolysis take place?
    Cytoplasm
  86. What are the characteristics of life?
    Respond to stimuli, grow and develop, adapt, homeostatic, use materials and energy from the environment
  87. In photosynthesis, where does glucose form?
    In the stroma

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