What is entropy? How is it increased or decreased?
Entropy is disorganization. Energy is required to decrease entropy.
What processes are involved in cell division?
Longest part of mitosis
Prep for division
Organelles double, DNA replicates, synthesis of proteins
Chromatin condenses to chromosomes
Spindles begin forming
Spindles separate centrioles
Chromosomes align at cell equator
Sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite poles
Each chromatid is independent chromosome
Daughter chromosomes arrive at opposite poles
Nuclear membrane reforms
Plants - Cell plate forms
Animals - Cleavage furrow forms
What is metabolism?
All chemical processes within an organism
What are the parts of an atom, atomic number, and atomic mass?
Nucleus: protons and neutrons
Electron cloud: electrons
Atomic number: number of protons
Atomic mass: mass of protons and neutrons added together
How many ATP are produced in glycolysis
In photosynthesis, when is water split and oxygen released
Light dependent reactions
What happens to a cell in an isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic solution
Isotonic: no change
What happens in the citric acid cycle?
Exhaust (CO2) is formed
What is the difference between transcription and translation
DNA to mRNA
mRNA to protein
What are autotroph, heterotroph, producer, and consumer?
Autotroph: an organism capable of making organic nutritional substances from simple inorganic substances like carbon
Heterotroph: an organism who must get its nutritional requirements from complex organic substances
Producer: an organism that can make is own food
Consumer: an organism who must consume another organism for food
What is the difference and phenotypes of a monohybrid and dihybrid cross?
Monohybrid: 3:1, one trait
Dihybrid: 9:3:3:1, two traits
What are the reactants and products of photosynthesis?
Reactants: CO2 + H2O
Products: C6H12O6 + O2
What organelle is important for intracellular transport?
Who discovered the structure of DNA?
Watson and Crick
What is a testcross?
A dominant trait (phenotype) is observed, but the genotype is unknown. It is crossed with a homozygous recessive organism and the offspring is observed
What enzyme is involved with DNA replication?
What nucleotide bases pair together?
Adenine - Thymine (Uracil)
Cytosine - Guanine
What is it called when a piece of one chromosome moves to a non-homologous chromosome?
In what phases to variation take place?
Prophase I: crossing over
Metaphase I: independent assortment
What are the reactants and products of aerobic cellular respiration?
Reactants: C6H12O6 + O2
Products: CO2 + H2O
What are the different levels of protein synthesis?
Secondary: beta pleated sheet/helix
Quaternary: 2 or more proteins bonded
What does the 2nd law of thermodynamics state?
Energy is lost in the form of heat and cannot be used
Energy must be input for organization
The amount of disorder is always increasing
What is the function of the ribosome?
Which stage of respiration produces the most ATP?
Electron transport system
When would fermentation happen?
When no oxygen is present
What is the correct order of the steps of the scientific method?
Observation, hypothesis, test, conclusion
What are the main sources of genetic variation?
Meiosis and crossing over
What are the main photosynthetic pigments?
Chlorophyll A & B, and carotenoids
What kind of cells are the egg and sperm?
What is chemiosmosis?
Accumulation of H+ in the thylakoid space that move to the stroma through the ATP synthase complex
What are the nucleotide bases in DNA and RNA?
Thymine (Uracil in RNA)
What is cytokinesis in both plants and animals?
Division of the cytoplasm
Animals: cleavage furrow
Plants: cell plate
What causes an atom to become an ion?
The gain or loss of an electron
What does the cell theory state?
New cells come only from preexisting cells
What is a gene mutation?
An alteration in the normal sequence of bases within a gene
What organelles are in a plant cell, but not in an animal cell and vice versa?
Animal: centrioles, lysozomes
Plant: cloroplasts, cell wall, central vacuole
What stores starch in plant cells?
Large central vacuole
What is a karyotype?
A photograph of a chromosome set
What is the structure, shape, and reproduction of bacteria?
Bacteria have a cell wall, no nucleus, a single circular DNA, and reproduce asexually by binary fission
What is unique about enzymes?
Enzymes are made of protein, speed up reactions, and don't get used up.
What are the parts of a reaction?
Reactants and products
What are the uses of biochemistry?
Clean up oil spills, increase soil fertility, engineer pland DNA to resist pests and cold, and obtain minerals in mining
What to the genes on the Y chromosome determine?
What is the structure of DNA?
The rungs are nucleotide bases (ATCG)
The arms are deoxyribose sugars and phosphate
What is the process of DNA to RNA to protein in relation to nucleotide bases?
DNA is in the nucleus, mRNA makes the complement (replacing T with U). mRNA travels to cytoplasm and goes through ribosome. tRNA finds correct amino acid based on anticodon, and assembles the protein on the ribosome.
What is the induced-fit model?
The active site undergoes a slight change in shape
What is the difference between mitosis and meiosis?
Mitosis: body cells, diploid to diploid (2n to 2n), one division
Meiosis: gametes, diploid to haploid (2n to n), two divisions
What is ATP and what is the cycle it has with ADP?
ATP: energy for the cell
ATP donates phosphate, becomes ADP, ADP waits for phosphate, becomes ATP
What is the order of classification?
Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
What is active transport?
Movement against the concentration gradient. Requires energy
What is the atomic number?
The number of protons
What is haploid vs. diploid?
Haploid: 1/2 the number of chromosomes
Diploid: all chromosomes
What is NAD
What does DNA ligase do?
Links together fragments of DNA
What is prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic?
Prokaryotic: no defined nucleus
Eukaryotic: difined nucleus
What are the parts of a virus?
Protein coat (capsid), and either DNA or RNA
In cell division, when does the DNA duplicate?
What type of transport are carrier molecules needed for?
Facillitated diffusion and active transport
What is Mendel's law of segregation?
Two members of an allelic pair are distributed to separate gametes
Why are plants green?
They reflect green wavelengths
What are the functions of cell organelles?
Nucleus: stores DNA
Ribosomes: protein synthesis
Golgi Apparatus: collects, sorts, packages, and distributes material
Lysosomes: garbage disposal of cells
Vacuoles: stores substances
Peroxisomes: break down molecules producing hydrogen peroxide
Mitochondria: cellular respiration
Cytoskeleton: maintains cell shape
What is the difference between ionic and covalent bonds?
Ionic: transfer of electrons
Covalent: sharing of electrons
What is an example of a bacterial vector?
What does the calvin cycle need to run?
CO2 + energy (NADPH and ATP)
What are oxidation and reduction (redox) reactions?
Oxidation: oxygen is lost
Reduction: oxygen is gained
What is the difference between a C3 plant and a C4 plant?
C3: oxygen gets in the way of RUBP in warm climates
C4: bundle sheath cell delivers carbon to calvin cycle, oxygen does not get in the way
What is an example of multiple allele inheritance?
What are enzymes made of?
What are four reactions in aerobic cellular respiration?
Glycolysis, transition (prep) cycle, citric acid cycle, electron transport system
What are the differences between spermatogenesis and oogenesis?
Spermatogenesis: 4 sperm produced
Oogenesis: 1 egg and up to 3 polar bodies produced
What effects an enzyme and how does it work?
Temperature, concentration, pH affect enzymes
They are very specific and help in all reactions
What is used to clean up beaches after an oil spill?
In terms of DNA, what does semi-conservative mean?
One original strand of DNA is preserved in the daughter cell
What is an allele?
An alternate form of a gene
What is a genotype vs. a phenotype?
Genotype: actual genes
Phenotype: observable traits
What is exergonic vs. endergonic?
Exergonic: output of energy (spontaneous)
Endergonic: input of energy
What does the 1st law of thermodynamics state?
Energy cannot be created or destroyed
What does RuBP do?
RuBP combines with CO2 to form a 6-carbon compound
What are the flattened sacks within a chloroplast called?
What is the pH scale and the difference between hydrogen to hydroxide ions?
H+ H+ = OH OH
1 - 7 - 14
Acid Neutral Base
What is apoptosis?
Programmed cell death
What kind of reaction occurs when two glucose molecules combine?
What are the three major domains of life?
Bacteria, archaea, eukarya
Where does glycolysis take place?
What are the characteristics of life?
Respond to stimuli, grow and develop, adapt, homeostatic, use materials and energy from the environment