The ____ ocular shield is a fenestrated aluminum shield.
A____ patch must not be used on a patient with a lacerated globe.
_______ drugs are applied directly to ocular surfaced and/or surrounding tissues.
What is the term for a drug that dissolves completely in a slovent?
A ____ is a combination of liquid and drug particles, such as PF, prednisolone acetate
What is the test used for detecting a RAPD
Swinging light test
which muscle of the iris constricts in bright light?
how is the anterior chamber depth estimated using a slit lamp?
A highbeam is placed at the limbus 60 degress and the distance between the two beems of light are compared with the thickness of the optical section of the cornea
Which two ocular structures can touch if the anterior chamber is flat
Iris and cornea
which instrument measures the radius of curvature, or base curve, of a spectacle lens surface in diopters.
Geneva lens clock
The mannerisms of blind children, such as walking in circles or rubbing thier hands, are termed?
what is the most common cause of blindness in the world?
what diagnostic term is used when a patient's chief complaints are "tired eyes and fatigue" when describing symptoms
what type of glaucoma presents with the following ocular signs and symptoms: fixed mid-dilate pupil, corneal edema, red eye, blurry VA, and pain.
Accute angle-closure glaucoma
what are the 5 principle areas included in the history interview
Chief complaint, ocular history, medical history, family ocular and medical histories and allergies.
Onset and duration of sx are included in the patients____
what should you do if a patient is unable to provide you with the names of the medications he/she is taking.
have the patient call your office at a later time or ask if you can contact their PCP or pharmacy.
a patient that is describing an experience of getting hives after taking sulfa drugs is providing information about_______
An allergic reaction
A partially sighted patient can legally have a best corrected visual acuity of _____ in thier best eye?
Legal blindness is defined as?
20/200 in best eye, or a VF of 20 degrees or less in their best eye.
which systemic disease might cause a patient to need a snack during a CE
Diabetes type I
In metric notation 100cm are equal to ___meters or ____millimeters
how many deciliters make one liter
Universal precautions are mandated by OSHA but were developed by the _______
Washing hands between patients is one example of_____
What instrctions would be given over the phone to a patient who had splashed a chemical into the eyes?
Immediately flush the eyes with water for 15-20 minutes and the report to the ER or ophthalmologist's office.
The most common type of glaucoma is __________?
POAG, primary open angle glaucoma
Instrument lenses that contact the eye can be sterilized by _________________
ethylene oxide gas, and non-heat aeration that does not exceed degrees F
Aqueous drains out of the eye through this net-like structure.
Which dye solution is used when performing Goldmann applanation tonometry?
Which device uses compressed gas to applanate the cornea and measure the intraocular presssure?
Pneumatotonometer and pneumatic or "Air puff"
What is the diameter of the corneal area properly applanated by a Goldmann tonometer?
How many measutements does the Tono-pen record to give an averae IOP result?
Which tonometer device uses converion tables to convert units into millimeters of mercury?
What are the three colors of receptors found in cones?
Red, blue, and green
what is the term for the thickest layer of the cornea
What is the visual symptom, and its cause, often experienced by diabetic patients durnig episodes of increased BS?
Blurred VA, caused by changes in the refractive index of the crystalline lens (myopic shift when RI increased and hyperopic shift when RI decreases.)
Episodes of sudden temporary VA loss most likely indicate a disorder of which physiological system.
What is the color of bottle caps of prostaglandin agents?
What are the names of three large groups of anti-infective agents?
Antibiotic, antiviral and antifungal
A true allergic reaction to a drug invovles what symptoms?
Itch, rash, difficulty breathing weak or rapid pulse
What is a sign of sub-conjunctival hemorrhage?
Blood pooling under the conjunctiva.
Within how many hours should a patient with a retinal detachment be evaluated?
what is the most common symptom in age-related macular degeneration?
Loss/decreaed central VA
Which type of tonometer may be cleaned with a dry pip cleaner?
What may cause a rim artifact in perimetry?
Corrective lens too far from the eye
Commercial cleaners may be used to clean which type of mirror?
back surface mirror
The Goldmann applanation tonometer prism is best cleaned between patients with _______
Alcohol or hydrogen peroxide.
What is the reason to not immerse a laminated projector slide in water, in order to clean it?
Water can enter between the two glass slides and wash off the letters or leave permanent water marks
What size letters (optotypes) are typically used to calibrate visual acuity projectors?
What type of solutions should NOT be used on plastic prisms
What is the next step after disinfecting a Goldmann applanation tonometer tip with alcohol?
Let it air dry for 1-2 minutes.
Wipe the cross cylinder with a lens tissue occasionally, protect the instrument with a dust cover when not in use, and clean the retinoscopy lens with a glass cleaner and cotton-tipped swabs are good practices with regard to care of which instrument?
Scheduled maintenance of a phoropter should be performed how often?
Every two years
If dust accumulates on the mirror of the slit lamp, the technician may clean it by using what cleaning methods?
A lint-free cloth, a lens brush, or blast of air
A standard habit for all personnel who use the slit lamp should be_______?
Check the electrical connections and lock the base
What must be checked when troubleshooting why a non-portable ultrasonic biometer fails to power up?
Instrument fuses, electrical connections, or the circuit breaker.
What is the correct way to clean the surface of the lenses of a lensmeter when dust has fallen on them?
Blow it off with a clean, dry rubber bulb syringe or compressed air.
If the lensmeter controls feel tight to the operator, who should fix it?
A qualified service technician.
In order to maintain the retinoscope, generally you need to keep an adequate supply of _______ in the examining room.
Spare bulbs and batteries
The bestway to maintain Tangent Screen Tests Objects is to____________
Wash with mild soap and water
What is the best way to maintain a tangent screen?
What is the most likely reason for a projected image to become dim, particularly on one-half of the acuity projector screen.
The projector blub is failing, carbon deposit build-up is darkening the bulb.
How should the removable glass slides inside the American Optical acuity projector be cleaned?
wipe with a clean, soft lint-free towel or photographic lens paper.
What instrument, used to examine the retina, is: easier to use with small or undilated pupils, permits a greater magnification, and is mechanically easier to use?
What instrument, used to examine the retina, is used to examine the complete fundus in steropsis, uses a hand-held condensing lens and the image appears as an inverted image of the retina?
Lack of calibration of the perimeter, small size of patient's pupils and noise distractions can lean to _________errors in perimetry.
In which type of mirror does the tip of an object, touching the glass, appear to touch it's image?
Front surface mirrors
Which test is performed in a patient describing metamorphopsia (straight lines apearing wavy at near)
How many degrees of central vision are measured by an Amsler grid?
20 degrees (10 in all directions)
Which test measures the amount of tear production?
Basic secretion, and Schirmer I and II
how long are the Schirmer strips left in place during a tear test?
A topical drug that dilates the pupil without affecting accommodation is termed________
A drug that produces a temporary paralysis of the ciliary muscle is termed?
A cycloplegic drug may blur vision at near due to a temporary loss of _________
In what part of the eye should ophthalmic drugs be placed?
Cul-da-sac or lower fornix
Drainage of topical drops from the eye and their systemic absorbtion can be somewhat prevented by?
Punctal occlussion by digital pressure.
Which color vision test consists of pseudo isochromatic plates that determine red-green color anomalies and deficiencies?
What is the name of the instrument used to measure proptosis or exophthalmos in millimeters
Exophthalmometer or Hertel
Which refractive error is produced in an unaccommodating eye, when parallel rays focus behind retina?
Which refractive error is produced when parallel rays focus in front of retina?
If the mires projected through an ophthalmometer appear dim when looking through the eyepiece at the corneal surface, what is most likely the cause?
Lamp bulb needs changing
If there is no light source when you turn on an ophthalmometer, the first step you should take is to ____________
Check that it is plugged in
What is the best way to clean the back lenses (retinoscopy lens, red lens and Maddox Rod) of the phoropter?
Clean with glasses cleaner and cotton-tipped swabs
Checking the calibration of a Goldmann applanation tonometer is performed with a ___________
Balance or calibration rod
When calibrating the non-contact tonometer it is critical that __________
triggering is repeated several times
Where do you check pulse on an adult CPR patient ?
Neck (carotid pulse)
what is the ratio of chest compressions to artificial ventilations in one-person adult CPR?
The heart consists of how many chambers
Increased thirst, excessive urine production, and increased hunger with weightloss are characteristics of which endocrine disease?
Which drug, that is included in a crash cart, is used to increase the heart rate?
which parts of the eye can be affected by hypertension?
Hemorrhage confined to the anterior chamber is termed?
Which corneal condition can result from proptosis
Dry eye secondary to exposure
Name three infectious agents
Bacteria, fungus and virus
What term is used when light rays focus on retina without requirimg correction?
how many pigments for vision are present in a normal human retina?
Four (red, green and blue in cones and rhodopsin in the rods)
Which hormone is insuffucuent in a patient with diabetes melitus?
What is the term used to designate a range of procedures used to prevent spread of infectious microbes to and from patients and office personnel?
What finding can occur 6/8 hours after a metallic foreign body enters the cornea?
What is the term for destruction of all micro-organisms on instrument and materials?
Why are alkali burns more serious than acid burns on the cornea?
Alkali burns penetrate deeper
A metal chamber equipped to use steam under high pressure to destroy micro-organisms is termed?
Variability in the functions of levator and extraocular muscle is characteristic in which systemic disease
Blockage of the central retinal artery by an embolus, which stops blood flow and causes acute loss of vision and a cherry red spot in the retina, is termed?
CRAO (central retinal artery occlusion)
What is the name of the mucous membrane covering the anterior sclera?
which color defects may be distinguished by the Ishihara test?
Red and green
What is the spherical equivalent of -2.00+3.00x090?
Transpose +3.00 +1.00x180
What is the first step in performing lensometry of keratometry?
focusing the eyepiece
A-scan biometry measures the distance between ________
Internal ocular surfaces
Applanation tonometry displaces less than ________of aqueous.
The Goldmann applanation tonometer gives a reliable measurement of intraocular pressure to within_________mmHg.
Disadvantages of the Goldmann tonometer include:
Lack of portability; unreliable results with corneal distortion, scarring, or high astigmatism; corneal abrasion; infection
What color filter is used when performing Goldmann Applanation tonometry?
For every increment of 1 on the Goldmann applanation scale, this should be multiplied by _______?
The muscle light that is suddenly too dim most likely needs_______?
Maintenance for the muscle light may include_____
Front surface mirrors, in a projection system, should be cleaned by____________
A glass cleaner and cotton ball
Who should repair and maintain equipment such as a laser?
A qualified service technician
What items would hinder the characteristic high reflectance of the screen used with a visual acuity projector?
Abrasive scratches and fingerprints
Patients with high myopia may have ______ocular rigidity because the sclera is thinner and stretched.
During Schiotz tonometry, the greater the distance the plunger indents the cornea , the ______ the eye or the _______ the intraocular pressure.
What are the commonly used weights when performing schiotz tonometry?
5.5g, 7.5g, 10g
When performing Schiotz tonometry, if the tonometer should slide over the surface of the cornea, this may produce a ______________
The higher the intraocular pressure of an eye, the
_______ the eye
If you cannot center the intersection of the thick and thin lines in the lensmeter , the lens has ______
Each black ring seen in the eyepiece reticle of the lensmeter measures how much prism?
What is the Bausch & Lomb trade name for the ophthalmometer?
What do you do to transpose a spherocylinder lens from plus to minus cylinder form, or reverse?
Algebraically add the sphere and cylinder powers, retain the cylinder power BUT change the sign and change the axis by 90 degrees.
The chief use of A-scan biometry is to calculate the desired power of a(an)______
intraocular lens implant
What is the name of the instrument used to measure extesion of the anterior surface of the cornea beyond the lateral orbital rim?
Exophthalmometer or hertel
When the amsler grid is held at the proper distance and viewed with the distance and near corrections in place, each square subtends an angle of______degree(s)
What is pupil dilation termed?
What is the term used when there is a difference in pupil size?
which technique assumes that the rigidity of the sclera is normal?
If scleral rigidity is high, the intraocular pressure will be ____
Most inaccuracies in schiotz tonometry result in ______ rater than_____ readings.
Falsely low, high
Measuring intraocular pressure is also called______
when performing______ tonometry, the aqueous fluid in the anterior chamber between the cornea and iris is displaced.
What effect is produced when the distance between the optical centers of the lenses mounted in a spectacle does not correspond to the IPD of a patient?
Prismatic or induced prism
What happens to light at the optical center of a lens?
Nothing, light passes without being refracted
Light rays are____ when they pass at an angle from one transparent medium to another of a different refractive index?
A prism bends light rays toward its _____
Light rays entering two prims placed base-to-base will be refracted so that the rays_____
What is a common problem that presents with symptoms of floaters and flashing lights?
Sudden, painless loss of vision is an example of an ocular _________
Prior use of topical ocular pharmaceutical agents is part of a patient's____________
Past ocular hx
A history of strabismus sx at age 5 should be included in what record?
Past ocular hx
What is the term used to describe the absence of a natural lens?
Pertinent family hx of a patient should include which relatives?
Parents, grandparents and genetic siblings
What reading should the light meter display when a Goldmann perimeter is accurately calibrated for the stimulus?
which substance is used to disinfect the ultrasound transducer?
hydrogen peroxide or Alcohol
Name the best way to prolong the life of transilluminator bulbs and batteries.
turn the instrument off when not in use
what should be used to clean the accessible lenses of a phoropter?
Photographic lens cleaner and lens tissue
Which solution should NEVER be used on any working part of a phoropter (except the patient forehead and cheek rests)
when determining anterior chamber depth using a flashlight test,a shadow on the nasal iris indicates _________