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Erickson's gap between childhood security and adult automony
A period of identity development during which the individual is exploring alternatives. Exploration
A personal linvestment in identity
What are Erickson's' Four Stages of Identity
1. Identity diffusion
2. Identitiy foreclosure
3. Identity moratorium
4. Identity acheivement
the status of individuals who have not yet experienced a crisis or made any commitments. Not only are they undecided about occupation and ideological choices, they are also likely to show little interest in such matters
the status of individuals who have made a commitment but have not experienced a crisis. Usually occurs when parents hand down commitments to their adolescents, usually in an authoriatatian way
the status of individuals who are in the midst of a crisis but whose commitments are either absent or are only vaguely defined
the status of individuals who have udergone a crisis and have made a commitment
What are the age stages of parent-conflict?
1. Escaltaltes during early adolescense
2. Remains somewhat stable during High School
3. Conflict lessens during age 17 - 20. Especially if student leaves for college
A model that suggest that as adolescents mature they detach themselves from parents to become autonomous individuals. Parent-adolescent conflict is intense and stressful throughout adolescence.
Old Model Parent-Adolescent
A model that suggest that as adolescents mature parents serve as important attachement figures and support systems while adolescents explore a wider, more complex social world
New Model Parent-Adolescent
A small group ranging from 2 to 12 individuals and average about 5 to 6 indiviuals
An adolescent who breaks the law or engage in behavior that is considered illegal
What are some causes of Juvenile deliquency?
1. Low Socioeconomical status
3. Feeling of isolation from the middle class
4. Low-monitor Parents
What percentage of mahor depressive disorder is experienced in adolecents
15% - 20%
What is the ratio of depression compared to girls and boys at age 15
At age 15 girls are 2 times as likely to have major depression than boys
What are factors that contribute for adolescents developing depression
1. Depressed Parents
2. Emotionally unavailable Parents
3. Parents with high marital conflict
4. Parents with Financial problems
WHat is the thrid leading cause of death for 10 to 19 year olds in the U.S.?
What race is mostly at risk for Juvenile deliquency?
Young Black Males in Low SES
What are Harry Stack Sullivan's views on friendship?
Friends are important for shaping the development of a child:
1. Playful companionship
3. Social acceptance
4. Sexual Relations
6. Basic Social Needs
List 2 ways friendships different from adolecences to childhood?
1. Intamacy intensifies during early adolescence.
2. Adolscents depend on their friends more than their parents
What are the consequences for not making friends?
2. Reduced sense of Self worth
When is peer pressure greatest?
Around 8th and 9th grade conformity to peers peaks
What factors contribute to peer pressure?
1. Uncertainty about social identity
2. Presence of someone they percieve to have higher status than they do
A ceromony or ritual that marks an individual's transition from one status to another