psc 319

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psc 319
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  1. roles of the president
    • chief executive
    • chief legislator
    • foriegn policy leader
  2. cheif legislator
    • agenda setter
    • coailition buidler
  3. honeymoon period
    time when the president is the most effective in seting the public agenda. this time period is usually the first 6 months of presidency when the president is experiencing favorable media coverage. also the time when most legislative proposals happen
  4. coalition builder
    • tries to build coialtion in congress to support presidential intiatives - important to remember 97 percent fail.
    • looks to party members in congress for help- party members support 2/3 of the time
    • persuasion and bargianing used to gain support
    • logical reasoning
    • special treatment
    • veto-pocket veto- threat
    • going public
  5. Going public
    • taking your case to the people a streategy used when congressional support is difficult to obtain.
    • it is more effective when the president is popular
    • can influcen elections- change the composition of congress also uses the president cotails and mid-term looses.
  6. foreign policy leader
    • manages foreign policy crisies
    • rally around the flag effect
  7. rally around the flag effect
    a surge of support from the public and the media. Bill Clinton seemed to have the opposite effect- his strenght was domestic issues not international issues and he was nenver in the military.
  8. presidential communication with the public
    • weekely radio addresses
    • state of the union address
    • press confernces
    • white house website
  9. relationship between president and the media
    • it is an adversarial relationship
    • the press corps relies on the president to provide the news needed to fill the dialy news and feature stories. the coverage of the president helps to sell newspapers, yet it is the president that controls the timing and amount of info.
  10. historical devleopment
    in the past the president dealth directly with reporters who covered them. they had little direct communication with the public- only the state of the union address and when a constitutional question arose.
  11. william mckinley
    created the modern press secrtary position- george cortlyou was appinted as the confidential stenographer- his job was the breif the reporteers, writ and distrubute press releases and provide press with advabced copies of speeched.
  12. reporters in the 1900's
    • began to view washington as a choice assignment
    • it has less turnover and became an important step in career advancement
  13. bromlaw committe and reorganization committe- 1939
    allowde FDR to hire 6 personal assistants... this was the begging if what we have today with over 450 white house staffers 50 of which are devoted soley to communication
  14. FDR
    • he made speical effort to generate good will amoung the press
    • he met with the press frequqntly
    • he held press conferences and not private interviews
    • he held the first press conference in 1933- over 200 reporters attended
  15. JFK
    was the first president to televise a press conference
  16. white house positions
    • press secreatry
    • office of communications
    • director of communications
  17. press secrtary
    • serves as the presidential mouthpiece
    • the liason between the president and members of the press
    • holds press conferences and gaggles
    • works to achive positibe news coverage and deflect negative
    • anticipates questions
    • advises the president on communication matters
    • difficult to maintain repsect of both the president and the press.
  18. office of communications
    focuses on the long term planning, managing and staging news events
  19. director of communications
    • thinks carfeully about how an event will appear on the news
    • attempts to manipulate media to get out a certain message
    • line of the day
    • event staging
    • spin control
  20. press conference vs. gaggle
    • press confernces are most of the time orderly with the most senior reporters going first and teh questions asked are difficult ones.
    • a gaggle by contrast is informal and off the record. they usually occur before or after a press confernce, these are not televised. it is called a gaggle because it is like geese picking at a politician.
  21. white house press pool
    groups of reporters that follow the president around- usually all fo the major television networks and the elite newspapers have one
  22. numbers of white house press pool
    • 100 or more reporters cover the white house on a daily basis
    • 1700 reporters are issued press passes
    • the white house beat is one of the most pretigious
  23. differnt types of press pools
    • in town pool
    • travel pool
  24. in town pool
    • some events only pool members can attend
    • 13 members change in this pool each dau and they rotate alphabetically
  25. trvale pool
    • accompanies president when he travels on air force one
    • this pool is picked at random or alphabetically. the white hosue pays for the accomdations- this ensures that the presidents gets coverage
  26. pool report
    • describes the events, provides appropriate quotes, assess th presidents mood and the mood of other staffers.
    • must file a report before wirint thier own story
    • cannot use anything un ther own story that they did not state in the report- they do this to try and make it faair so every reporter has the same infromation
  27. how does president try to cultivate the media
    • daily briefings
    • transcripts of breiifings.speeches
    • daily handouts
    • inteviews
    • access to facilities
    • travel arrangements
  28. why does the president do all of the media things
    because it is hard to get media covergae of the president
  29. what is president doing to get more media coverage
    • more traveling
    • more addresses
    • more pblic appearances
    • have all increased since the 1950's
  30. networks advertising and the president
    • national networks are increasingly less likely to grant the president airtime. the public would rather watch thier entertinament shows then the president- audience viewership of presidential addresses has decreased over time. 1969-45, 1990's low 30's.
    • the reason this is happening is cable television
    • and the more a presidnet gives speeches the less liekly people feel the need to tune in.
  31. advertising and presidential airtime
    ex. here id BUsh. he requested air time at 8:30 at noght during a sweep - which is when advertisers are able to either increase or decrease theer arets based on viewship so many fo the networks did not want to air the oresident becase thier numbers would go dwon. For ex CBS did not want to b/c of survivor and CSI while NBC did not want to because of the apprentice.
  32. w
  33. who watches presidential addresses
    • regan case study
    • those who are more educated watch, older, whites, democrats less liekly and independents less likely because they are detached from the system all togethter- same trned that exist with voting behavior
  34. how much do people remember when they watch the address
    not much, at least 50 percent remember al least 1 point, only 1/3 remember 2 points
  35. factors affecting congressional elections
    • type of district or state
    • partisan ties
    • incumbency advantage
    • money
    • challenger quality
  36. type of district
    • citizen ideology
    • stonrg conservative or strong liberal or mixed
    • redistricting
  37. partisan ties
    mood changes- swing back and forth between periods of conservatism and liberalism
  38. challenger quality
    higher quality challangers bring with them a professional staff, more money and recive more favorable media coverage.
  39. incumbency advantage
    • gowth since in 1960's, estimated worth of 1 million dollars
    • incumbents re-elected more frequqnty
    • more people vote for the incumbent the 2nd time
  40. incumbent numbers
    • 1946- 82, 2002-97 in the hosue
    • 1946-56, 2002 86 in the senate
  41. voting margin
    • house 1946- 60, 2002 68
    • why does this matter- the amount you win by can be seen as either a weakness or a strenght, and it may dictate who your opponent is in future races
  42. why is incumbency advantage increasing
    • weakening party ties within the electorate
    • consituent service. case work
    • pork barrel projects
    • institutionla resources
  43. weakening party ties
    • incumbency seens as a voting cue
    • seems to have replaced partisan shio cue
  44. service work
    • helping individulas and business with problems
    • growth in goverment has privided more opportunity for this
    • the more business individulas you can help the more liekly they will spread "good word" that may help you get re-elected
  45. pork barrel
    • federal progams, projects and expidentures brought to the state or district.
    • this is the reason why everyone loves thier congressman but hates congress as a whole
    • growth in government budget has provided more oppourtunity for these
  46. incumbency resources
    personal staff, trips back to distcrict, frnaking priviledge
  47. personal staff
    • every member of congress has at least 1 if not 2.
    • between 18- 20 people for the house and 30-35 for the senate
    • in 1930-40's the amt of staffer was low, during the 1940's it increased dramtically through the 1970's but has since leveled off.
  48. trips to district
    • in 1962- 3 paid trips
    • 1977- 33
    • 1978- unlimited
    • the more trips a congressmen can make back to thier district the more people they can meet in thier district and the more hometown media coverage they can generate.
  49. franking
    • low in 1954
    • in 1980s it hit its peak with over 800 million oices of mial
  50. incumbent money
    • incumbent spending has a diminshing returnthe average incumbent spends 740,000- money doesn't buy votes but ut does buy acecess.
    • DMR- the more an incumbent spends the less bang your thier buck they are getting- after a certain point of spending money is usualess
  51. challenger money
    • average challenger soends 310,000
    • to be a serious competitor they need 600,000
    • the more a challenger soends the better they do
  52. trends in media coverage
    • competitive races recived more news coverage than non competitive races- covergae is also more critical and negative as it increases
    • open races recived the largest amount of coverage and are the most comepttive
    • incumbents recive more pres coverage than challeners- but they have less control over the substance of the coverahe.
    • in compettive races incumbents and challengers recived almost equal amounts of press ocverage
    • senate incumbenst are endorces over 80 percent of the time. newspaper that do endore incumbents print fewer critism of the incubent than newspaper that endorese the senators challenger
  53. House
    • represents the masses
    • elections every 2 years
    • stronger party loyalty- more party ine voting
    • leaders have more power over individual members
  54. senate
    • deisgned to protest eleite interest- unlike the house
    • party loyalty weaker- less party line voting
    • leaders have less power over indivudlas members- only up for re-election every six years
  55. leadership positions in the house
    • speaker of the houde
    • majority leader
    • minorty leader
    • majoirty/minority party whip
  56. speaker of the house
    • leaer of the majority party
    • presides over hosue when it is in session
    • chairs commitee assigment panel
    • assigns bills to commitee- important
    • schedules floor business
    • national spokeperson when govt is divided
    • rewards/punishes members
  57. majoity leader
    • partisan ally of the speaker of the house
    • coalition builder- arm twitsing to ensure peopl will vote with the party
    • main floor defender/negotiator
  58. minority leader
    • similar to role in majoirt leader but for the opposite side
    • monitors legislation and develops strategy
    • coalition builder
    • works to win back the house
  59. majority.minority party whip
    • encourga eparty discipline
    • counts votes
    • coalition buillder
    • main role- communicates parties position and problems/complaints
  60. leadership positions in the senate
    • vice president
    • president pro-temp
    • majoity leader
    • minority leader
  61. vice president
    typicall not involved inless thier is a tie vote
  62. president pro temp
    • presides over the senate in the VP's abscnec
    • largely ceremonial role
    • choosen by majority party- typiclly senior member of the party
  63. majoirty leader senate
    • parties work horse in the senare
    • gathers votes
    • influnce comitte assignmentsschedules floor action
  64. legislation cycle
    legilstion has to be introcued and passed within a 2 year period
  65. media coverga ein senate
    focused on majority leader and no one else
  66. structure of congress
    • house has 435 members
    • 100 members of the senare
  67. congressional committees
    • house- has 19 standing committees with an average of 45 members
    • senate has 17 standing committesw tih aergae of 17 members
    • chair of committe is from the majority party a very powerful place- base don ability- used to be based on seniority- Newt changed this
  68. congresional sub committees
    • chair is from majority party
    • the place where most legislation is actually delath with
  69. deaht rate
    97 percent of bills die at the committe level
  70. commitee assigments
    allows members of congress to specialize and become ppolicy experts
  71. committe assignments in the house
    members serve on one fo 3 most powerful committees or 2 other committes- 1 second tier and 1 third tier
  72. most powerful committes in the house
    ways and means rules and appropriations
  73. senate committes assignments
    • not nearly as important or compettive as in the house
    • members serve on 3 committees- 2 major and 1 minor
  74. major committes in the senate
    appropriations, finance budget and foreign affairs
  75. purpose of congressional committess
    • make policy- laws this takes up the majoity of thier time
    • overseas the executive branch
  76. types of committees
    • standing- relatively permanent
    • conference- hash out differnces between hosue bills and senate bills
    • joint- have members from both the house and senate. look at few policy areas like economic and taxation issues
    • select- recives a decent amount of media covergae
    • appointed for a specifica reasn such as watergate
  77. how a bill becomes a law- 8 steps
    • inctroduced in house
    • referred to house committee
    • referred to sub committeee
    • rules committe action
    • full house debates and votes on passes
    • conference commiteee
    • both senate and house vote
    • presidential approcal
  78. presential and introcuding bills
    president CANT introduce bills himself
  79. special bills
    bills that deal with appropriations have to be introduced in the house- all other types of bills can be intriduced in either the senate or the house
  80. reffered to committes
    • they hold a hearing to gather infromations they invite alot of differnt people sometimes including celrbities- which brings in media attentionthey hold a mark up session- where ther tera the legilstion part and then basically re-write it
    • then they take a vote if it passes it goes back up to the full committee
  81. ideological polariztion in congress
    • 1970's- very mixed ideologically
    • 1980's- number of moderate shrinking
    • late 1980's demorctaes begin voting soley democtaric republicans voting republican
    • 1990's- very polatized
    • * this same pattern is seen in the public as well*
  82. legislators primary goal
    • advertising
    • credit claiming
    • position taking
    • * number one goal to be re-relected*
  83. advertising
    • disseminatin ones name to cerate a more favorable image- a brand name.
    • how to represenatative advertise
    • non political speeches
    • ribbon cutting ceremonies
    • sending outi infant care booklets
    • letters of congratuations or condolence
  84. credit claiming
    • genering the bleief that one is personally repsonible for causing the ogvt to take some desirblae action
    • how do they claim credit
    • casework- helping ones constituents with questions and complaints
    • findings losts ocialsecuty checks
    • helping a company with the IRS ect.
    • pork barrle projects- high way funds to fix the roads, new dam or hospital
  85. position taking
    • a judgment statement made on anything likely to be of interest to voters
    • how do they engage in position taking
    • form letters
    • floor addresses- goes on the record
    • roll call votes
    • * important here is that thier is no intent to take action- they are just talking*
  86. Accoutnability and congress
    • governemtn structure and accountability- makes it difficult for citizens to hold politicans accountable
    • system of dispersed power and scattered repsonsibility- federalism, separation of power, bi cameralism
    • officials have strong incentive to blame others- citizens are not likley to search for info on representatives activties in office.
  87. media and accountability
    • interest groups, media and challengers play avotal role in ensuring accountability
    • full news standard vs. burgar alarm standrda
    • elite news media vs. local news
  88. how effectovely yo media outlets cover elected officials
    • arnold study
    • analyzses media coverage of 2 house members
    • how much coverage to citizens recive- a fiar amount- newspaper published 15 articles a month- one article for every 2 days
  89. trends in newspaper coverage- arnold
    failry wide difference between local papers in terms of amount and quality of coverage. newspapers with 2 or more reps provided less coverage than newspaper with only 1

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