clinical path, ethics and pharmacology

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clinical path, ethics and pharmacology
2012-05-03 10:14:34
vet tech

clinical pathology, ethics and jurisprudence and pharmacology
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  1. icteric, icterus
    jaundiced (yellow). Usually means liver is severly abnormal, though it can mean other things. Shows up first in gingeva.
  2. mast cells
    big cells in blood that contain vesicles full of histamine. Release to start an immune (inflammatory) response
  3. clinical pathology
    how we evaluate the patient's condition by way of analysis of body fluids, tissue samples or necropsy
  4. Plasma
    blood in with anticoagulant (used to look at cells in blood)--hematology. Lavender cap.
  5. cells with no nucleus
    RBCs and platelets
  6. hematology
    study of blood (cells in blood). Slide or analyzer. PCV, oddities in RBC, WBC, Platelets
  7. Clinical chemistry
    looking at chemicals and enzymes--the by-products of metabolism. Look at the serum (red top)--the fluid part of blood. "serum chemistry". Enzymes of renal and hepatic system will tell us how these organs are doing
  8. serum
    liquid components of blood without coagulation factors (after clotting). Red top.
  9. Urinalysis
    look at urine. Blood or bacteria=infection. protein=kidney disease. glucose=diabetes.
  10. Fecal analysis
    look at stool. parasites #1 in puppies and kittens.
  11. Biopsy
    Punch, wedge or needle. take a sample of organ we think is abnormal. Tissue is used for histology.
  12. punch biopsy
    sharp circle, push through, twist and pull out.
  13. needle biopsy
    smooshes cells together. Can do ultrasound-guided needle biopsies between pericardium and heart for pericardial fluid
  14. Histology
    take solid tissue and look at it under a microscope.
  15. cytology
    looking at liquid tissue under a microscope
  16. ascites
    accumulation of fluid in abdomen. Treated with abdominocentesis, cytology exam to check levels, etc.
  17. Common electrolytes
    Na, K, Cl, P (sodium, potassium, chlorine, phosphorus). Things we can measure for diagnosis--increase K is a big disease indicator (heart muscle).
  18. Exocrine pancreas
    deliver enzymes or chemical compounds that travel through a duct to the body. Help with digestion. Testable with clinical chemistry.
  19. black cap on injectable drug bottle
  20. triaditis
    pancreas, intestine and gallbladder are linked, so if 1 gets irritated watch for the others.
  21. Endocrine serology
    measure hormones in blood to check thyroid, adrenal (cushing's, addison's), pancreas (insulin), etc.
  22. turbid
    can't see though it (serum and urine should not be turbid)
  23. lipemic
    white. Lipid in serum--right after eating
  24. hemolyzed
    red or pink. Serum has broken blood in it--did you shake it Was the needle wet?
  25. Hemolytic anemia
    RBCs are breaking up. Usually autoimmune. Some toxin/poison can make yellow
  26. cyanosis
    blue (gingeva, organs) from lack of oxygen
  27. hypersensitivity
    allergy. Tons of mast cells
  28. Mitotic figures
    you shouldn't see many, or even more than one. This could mean cancer
  29. Nephron
    functional unit of kidney
  30. microtome
    cuts microscopic slices
  31. anuria
    no urine (kidneys have shut down)
  32. reagent
    a chemical that reacts to 1 specific chemical or molecule
  33. wedge biopsy
    take out a pie-shaped section
  34. Dip stick
    strip of plastic with different colored squares with reagents to tell if elements are in urine--urinalysis.
  35. crystalluria
    little flakes/crystals in urine. Depends on diet and pH
  36. specific gravity
    molecular density complared to distilled water (usually urine is higher). Dilute is close to same, concentrated is MUCH higher
  37. grey feces
    pancreatic disease
  38. fat in stool
    pancreatic or enteric disease
  39. Fecal smear
    feces on a slide
  40. fecal sediment
    centrifuge with saline and put the solid part on a slide
  41. fecal float
    put with high specific gravity liquid. Parasite eggs float to top.
  42. Pharmacology
    study of drugs
  43. Drug
    chemical compound used to treat, prevent or diagnose disease
  44. Pharmacokinetics
    how drugs enter the body, get to their site of action and are excreted. This determines how and how often drugs are given.
  45. Pharmacodynamics
    how drug binds to its receptor (molecular level)
  46. LD
    lethal dose (50% die at this dose)
  47. ED
    effective dose. 50% get better at this dose.
  48. LD 50-ED 50
    range you can work in--distance between effective and lethal dose.
  49. three steps of pharmacokinetics
    absorption, distribution, elimination
  50. absorption of drugs
    how the drug gets in. Oral drugs must be acid-stable because the stomach is pH 2. Transport enzymes can help. Must have high pH (very basic) to make it into intenstines. With parenteral (IV, IM, SQ--speed order), don't worry about pH or taste
  51. distribution of drugs
    absorbed by intestines=portal circulation to liver, where processed--comes out different. Liver disease can be a problem. Binding to proteins can fix liver issues but then hard to get rid of. Lipid soluble is easy to get into cells. Kidney disease means drugs stay in system too long.
  52. metabolism of drugs
    Biodegration of constituents in microsomal enzyme system. If you keep giving drug, liver makes more enzymes=addiction and increased tolerance.
  53. elimination of drugs
    usually via renal system--made water-soluble. The harder it is to make water-soluble, the longer it stays in the system.
  54. Viagra in dogs for
    pulmonary hypertension (vasodilator)
  55. Center for Veterinary Medicine
    CVM--arm of FDA that handles veterinary drugs
  56. off-label use
    vets are allowed to use dog drugs on cats, human drugs on dogs, etc. Vets use a combination of human and animal drugs
  57. Minor Use Minor Species
    We can use drugs before data becomes available for a few animals.
  58. adverse event reporting
    call the FDA if the patient has a weird reaction--they'll know for recall
  59. AAFCO
    americal association of feed control officers. determine is pet food is okay. (does not apply to minor species)
  60. AMDUCA
    Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act. Says can't proscribe a drug without having seen patient and know client and allows off-label use and compounding (make a liquid out of a pill at pharmacy, etc.). Does not include feed animals.
  61. Ethics
    what is morally right and wrong
  62. jurisprudence
    what is against the law. Different in every state--often have to take a state exam
  63. NPS
    no parasite SEEN. Also NS, nothing seen
  64. "practice limited to" vs specialist
    you can't say you're a specialist unless you're board-certified
  65. continuing education
    you HAVE to continue--LVT 24 hours over 3 years and DVM 45 hours over three years.