clinical pathology, ethics and jurisprudence and pharmacology
jaundiced (yellow). Usually means liver is severly abnormal, though it can mean other things. Shows up first in gingeva.
big cells in blood that contain vesicles full of histamine. Release to start an immune (inflammatory) response
how we evaluate the patient's condition by way of analysis of body fluids, tissue samples or necropsy
blood in with anticoagulant (used to look at cells in blood)--hematology. Lavender cap.
cells with no nucleus
RBCs and platelets
study of blood (cells in blood). Slide or analyzer. PCV, oddities in RBC, WBC, Platelets
looking at chemicals and enzymes--the by-products of metabolism. Look at the serum (red top)--the fluid part of blood. "serum chemistry". Enzymes of renal and hepatic system will tell us how these organs are doing
liquid components of blood without coagulation factors (after clotting). Red top.
look at urine. Blood or bacteria=infection. protein=kidney disease. glucose=diabetes.
look at stool. parasites #1 in puppies and kittens.
Punch, wedge or needle. take a sample of organ we think is abnormal. Tissue is used for histology.
sharp circle, push through, twist and pull out.
smooshes cells together. Can do ultrasound-guided needle biopsies between pericardium and heart for pericardial fluid
take solid tissue and look at it under a microscope.
looking at liquid tissue under a microscope
accumulation of fluid in abdomen. Treated with abdominocentesis, cytology exam to check levels, etc.
Na, K, Cl, P (sodium, potassium, chlorine, phosphorus). Things we can measure for diagnosis--increase K is a big disease indicator (heart muscle).
deliver enzymes or chemical compounds that travel through a duct to the body. Help with digestion. Testable with clinical chemistry.
black cap on injectable drug bottle
pancreas, intestine and gallbladder are linked, so if 1 gets irritated watch for the others.
measure hormones in blood to check thyroid, adrenal (cushing's, addison's), pancreas (insulin), etc.
can't see though it (serum and urine should not be turbid)
white. Lipid in serum--right after eating
red or pink. Serum has broken blood in it--did you shake it Was the needle wet?
RBCs are breaking up. Usually autoimmune. Some toxin/poison can make yellow
blue (gingeva, organs) from lack of oxygen
allergy. Tons of mast cells
you shouldn't see many, or even more than one. This could mean cancer
functional unit of kidney
cuts microscopic slices
no urine (kidneys have shut down)
a chemical that reacts to 1 specific chemical or molecule
take out a pie-shaped section
strip of plastic with different colored squares with reagents to tell if elements are in urine--urinalysis.
little flakes/crystals in urine. Depends on diet and pH
molecular density complared to distilled water (usually urine is higher). Dilute is close to same, concentrated is MUCH higher
fat in stool
pancreatic or enteric disease
feces on a slide
centrifuge with saline and put the solid part on a slide
put with high specific gravity liquid. Parasite eggs float to top.
study of drugs
chemical compound used to treat, prevent or diagnose disease
how drugs enter the body, get to their site of action and are excreted. This determines how and how often drugs are given.
how drug binds to its receptor (molecular level)
lethal dose (50% die at this dose)
effective dose. 50% get better at this dose.
LD 50-ED 50
range you can work in--distance between effective and lethal dose.
three steps of pharmacokinetics
absorption, distribution, elimination
absorption of drugs
how the drug gets in. Oral drugs must be acid-stable because the stomach is pH 2. Transport enzymes can help. Must have high pH (very basic) to make it into intenstines. With parenteral (IV, IM, SQ--speed order), don't worry about pH or taste
distribution of drugs
absorbed by intestines=portal circulation to liver, where processed--comes out different. Liver disease can be a problem. Binding to proteins can fix liver issues but then hard to get rid of. Lipid soluble is easy to get into cells. Kidney disease means drugs stay in system too long.
metabolism of drugs
Biodegration of constituents in microsomal enzyme system. If you keep giving drug, liver makes more enzymes=addiction and increased tolerance.
elimination of drugs
usually via renal system--made water-soluble. The harder it is to make water-soluble, the longer it stays in the system.
Viagra in dogs for
pulmonary hypertension (vasodilator)
Center for Veterinary Medicine
CVM--arm of FDA that handles veterinary drugs
vets are allowed to use dog drugs on cats, human drugs on dogs, etc. Vets use a combination of human and animal drugs
Minor Use Minor Species
We can use drugs before data becomes available for a few animals.
adverse event reporting
call the FDA if the patient has a weird reaction--they'll know for recall
americal association of feed control officers. determine is pet food is okay. (does not apply to minor species)
Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act. Says can't proscribe a drug without having seen patient and know client and allows off-label use and compounding (make a liquid out of a pill at pharmacy, etc.). Does not include feed animals.
what is morally right and wrong
what is against the law. Different in every state--often have to take a state exam
no parasite SEEN. Also NS, nothing seen
"practice limited to" vs specialist
you can't say you're a specialist unless you're board-certified
you HAVE to continue--LVT 24 hours over 3 years and DVM 45 hours over three years.