Sociology: Mod 1

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  1. The sociological perspective:
    helps one to look at his or her own world in a different light
  2. The sociological perspective stresses that a person's ideas and desires are:
    influenced by social context.
  3. Sociology, as a science, emerged in the
    middle of the 1800s.
  4. Sociology grew out of
    social upheaval.
  5. Who would be the least likely to consider himself a sociologist?
    Karl Marx
  6. When Durkheim compared the suicide rates of several European countries, he found that:
    each country had a different suicide rate.
  7. Max Weber saw religion as:
    a central force in social change.
  8. As sociology became a respected academic subject, academic sociologists began to emphasize research and theory, designating non-academic activists as ________, not sociologists.
    social workers
  9. Who did not combine the role of sociologist with the role of social reformer?
    Talcott Parsons.
  10. A general explanation of how two or more facts are related to one another is a(n) ___________.
  11. To understand society, functionalists say that we need to look at
    both structure and function.
  12. Karl Marx felt that the key to human history is understanding ________ _________.
    class conflict.
  13. The theoretical perspective that is usually associated with micro level analysis is
    symbolic interactionism.
  14. A sociologist who has which type of theoretical perspective would be most interested in studying the interaction patterns in a homeless shelter?
    symbolic interactionist
  15. The correct sequence of steps in the research model is
    select a topic, define the problem, review the literature, formulate a hypothesis
  16. The statement "Men who are more socially isolated are more likely to abuse their wives than are men who are more socially integrated" is a(n) _________.
  17. The term that refers to a researcher using another researcher's operational definitions to conduct research that produces consistent findings is __________ .
  18. A research sample in which everyone in a population has the same chance of being included is called a _________ ________.
    random sample.
  19. Sociological findings are often presented in tables. The element of a table that appears just below the title and gives more detailed information about how the data were collected is known as the?
  20. To create neutral sociological research, your questions must
    allow respondents to express their own opinions.
  21. The measure of “average” that is a count of the cases that occur the most often is the _________.
  22. The measure of "average" that designates the middle case, the one that falls halfway between the top and the bottom, is the __________.
  23. One disadvantage of asking open-ended questions in surveys is that
    it can be difficult to compare answers.
  24. To do a(n) ________, the researcher focuses on a single event, situation, or even individual.
    case study
  25. Mario Brajuha, who did participant observation of restaurant workers, was applauded for his
    professional manner when he refused to hand over confidential notes.
  26. C. Wright Mills stated that the sociological perspective enables us to grasp a connection between history and __________.
  27. The sociologist who is credited with first trying to apply the scientific method to the study of the social world is ________ ________.
    Auguste Comte.
  28. Herbert Spencer used the phrase "survival of the fittest" to refer to his theory that
    a society's most capable and intelligent members survive over time, while the less capable die out.
  29. Why did the Wall Street Journal call Karl Marx one of the world's three greatest modern thinkers?
    His theories have had a major influence on the course of world history.
  30. From his rigorous research on suicide, Emile Durkheim concluded that
    social factors underlie suicide.
  31. The sociologist associated with the concept of the "spirit of capitalism" in developing modern societies was _______________.
    Max Weber.
  32. The modern sociologist who led the movement to urge sociologists to get back to the role of social reformer was ________.
    C. Wright Mills.
  33. ________ ________ examines face-to-face interactions to analyze how social relationships are determined.
    Symbolic interactionism
  34. Without the use of ________, human social life would be no more sophisticated than that of animals.
  35. Robert Merton used the term "function" to refer to
    only the beneficial consequences of people's actions.
  36. ______ _______stress that society is composed of groups that are competing with one another for scarce resources.
    conflict theorists.
  37. In an ideal model, scientific research follows eight basic steps, though some steps may ________ in the real world.
    run together
  38. In the "reviewing the literature" step of the research model,
    a researcher may find that the problem has already been answered so there is no need to do research.
  39. After reviewing the literature, the next step in scientific research is to formulate a ________.
  40. A researcher must develop ________ _______, which are precise ways to measure the variables.
    operational definitions
  41. A hypothesis in sociological research
    is a statement of what the researcher expects to find according to predictions that are based on a theory.
  42. Examples of research methods that sociologists use to collect data:
    surveys, samples, observation, case study, secondary analysis, documents, experiments
  43. Elements of a table one would find in sociological research:
    Title, headnote, headings, columns, rows, source
  44. In sociological research, the ________ is the target group that is being studied.
  45. Questions that are worded so that a respondent is able to answer in his or her own words are
    open-ended questions.
  46. Why is it important for sociological researchers to establish rapport with their subjects before they interview them?
    Subjects may not be truthful about sensitive information about themselves with a stranger they don't trust.
  47. When researchers analyze data that others have collected, it is called
    secondary analysis.
  48. A researcher who counts the number of empty whiskey bottles in trashcans in a town that is officially "dry" to determine alcohol consumption illustrates the use of
    unobtrusive measures.
  49. The research of Laud Humphreys
    included both participant observation and survey methods.
  50. Stresses the social contexts in which people live:
    The sociological perspective
  51. Refers to applying the scientific method to the social world:
  52. __________, disagreed with Comte's position that sociology should guide social reform:
    Herbert Spencer
  53. __________, believed that the engine of human history was class conflict.
    Karl Marx
  54. __________, was generally ignored as a social researcher, primarily because she was a woman.
    Harriet Martineau
  55. __________, co-founded Hull-House to reform slum housing in Chicago.
    Jane Addams
  56. ________ sociology involves analyzing some aspect of society with no goal other than gaining knowledge.
  57. A main idea of ________ _______ is that in order to function smoothly, society's parts must work together in harmony.
    structural functionalism
  58. ________ __________can trace its origin back to sociologists such as Comte and Spencer, who viewed society as a kind of living organism with various organs.
    Functional analysis
  59. A _________ _________would most likely state that there is more strain on marriages than in the past because there are greater responsibilities associated with child rearing.
    symbolic interactionist
  60. Unintended consequences of any social system that are harmful to society are called
    latent dysfunctions.
  61. Karl Marx, the founder of conflict theory, concluded that the key to human history is __________ __________.
    class conflict.
  62. A sociologist who examines large-scale patterns of society is doing _______________
    macro level analysis.
  63. The first step in the research model is to
    select a topic.
  64. The stage in the research model at which one stimulates ideas for more research comes
    after the research results are shared.
  65. In the research model, another term used for research method is
    research design.
  66. __________ is a feeling of trust established with another person.
  67. A researcher who wants to study spousal abuse by reading diaries of people who make use of a crisis intervention center is using _____________ to gather information.
  68. In an experiment, after the subjects to be studied are chosen, the next step is to randomly assign the subjects to either the ___________ or the ______________.
    experimental / control group.
  69. In the experimental method, the variable that may change is the ________ variable.
  70. Researchers who outfit shopping carts with infrared surveillance equipment to track customers as they pass through stores are using ___________ ____________.
    unobtrusive measures.
  71. Openness, as it applies to the _________ of research, entails sharing research findings with the scientific community.
  72. One of guidelines of ethical research that NOT all sociologists agree on is that
    it is unethical for researchers to misrepresent themselves.
  73. One of the practices of Laud Humphreys' research that many consider to be unethical was that
    he observed men anonymously in restrooms and later visited them in their homes without identifying himself as a researcher.
  74. What did Max Weber mean when he said that sociology should be value free?
    A sociologist's values should not affect social research.
Card Set
Sociology: Mod 1
Chapter 1: The Sociological Perspective
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