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Cerebrum is composed of ...
- Cerebral cortex
- Limbic system
- Basal Ganglia
Schizophrenia causes disruption in what lobe??
The Prefrontal Cortex
What are the 3 diff cortexs of the Frontal Lobe?
- Primary Motor Cortex
- Premotor Cortex
- Somatic Association Cortex
What does the Primary Motor Cortex Control??
- controls voluntary movements
- Nerves bundle goes to periphery of body in a pyramid –shaped bulge called the pyramidal tract.
Premotor Cortex is responsible for what??
The cooridination of movement of multiple muscles
What is the Somatic Association cortex responsible for
- choosing wisely,
- executive functions,
- motor speech in left frontal lobe (Broca’s Area: usually located in left frontal lobe ).
Parietal lobe is know as the what center
The processing Center
What does the Parietal Lobe controls what and interprets what information??
- Control of perception and interpretation of sensory information
- body position
What does the Temproal lobe do??
Hearing and receiving information via ears
short-term memory (esp. related to visual and auditory cues)
sense of smell
expression of emotions
- Wernicke’s area (works with Broca’s area to produce
- normal communication) : speech capacity-written and verbal speech
Complex visual perceptions
What does the Occipital Lobe do??
visual reception and interpretation
(color recognition, recognition/naming objects, ability to track moving objects)
Basal Ganglia is responsible for smooth integration of ..???
emotions, thoughts, and physical movement (both voluntary and involuntary)
The Basal Ganglies extrapyramidal motor system is an important role in what???
What are the Limbic systems Structures??
the Amygdala is located where??/
Amygdala is responsible for regulating what..??
- anxiety anger,
- sexual arousal,
- behavior, c
- omfort in social situations,
- sense of smell
The Thalamus filters what??
filters incoming information from PNS to CNS to prevent cortex becoming overloaded.
All sensory information except smell.
Hypothalamus is located
Deep in the brain
The hypothalamus regulates
regulates sleep-rest patterns (circadian rhythms), body temperature, hunger, sex
the Hippocampus is located
deep within the temporal lobe
Hippocampus is responsible for
Learning and recent memory
What disease has a damaged Hippocampus??
If a pt is having visual hallucinations what lobe is that??
Neurotransmitters have an important role in what
Human emotions and behaviors
What are the Key Neurtransmitters
What diseases have a Decrease in Acetylcholine??
- Huntingtons Disease
- Parkinsons Disease
- Alzheimers Disease
does Acetylcholine increase or decrease with muscle tightening???
What are Acetylcholines functions
- pain perception,
- coordination of movement
- (voluntary muscles) and memory (CNS
In depression the level of norepinephrine is ..??
level is Decreased
In Mania the Norepinephrine level is
In Anxiety States Norepinephrine level is
What do SSRIs do to the levels in the brain??
The increase serotonin
Serotonin plays a role in what??
- normal body temperature,
- mood, aggression
In Anxiety states serotonin levels are
In depression serotonin levels are
Dopamine is localized in the ??
the Functions of Dopamine are what
- regulationsof movements and coordination,
- voluntary decision-making
What are the diseases when Dopamin is decreased??
Depression and Parkinsons Disease
What diseases have a Increased level of Dopamine
Mania and Schizophrenia
What is GABAs function
- slow down of body activity (inhibits firing of
- Brain’s principle inhibitory neurotransmitter
In Huntington’s disease, GABA-producing neurons that
coordinate movement doing what
Degenerate causeing uncontrolable movements
The Activity of GABA in increased by what drugs
benzodiazepines and anticonvulsant drugs
If you have low levels of GABA you become more ..??
If you have High levels of GABA you become
Histamine is involved in what
Involved in alertness
Stimulation of gastric secretions
an Elevation in Histamine can cause
- Drop in BP
- Increased gastric acid
A decrease in Histamine can cause
- weight gain,
- dry mouth
What two Major transmitters are decreased in Depression and what is the third one
Serotonin and Norepinephrine
What neurotransmitter is decreased in Anxiety disorders
What neurotransmitter is decreased in Alziemers disease
Does a CT show movement and structures??
It does not show movement just structures
Does a CT show functioning
What diesease can a CT show defects in ???
schizophrenia, alcoholism, multi-infarct dementia, Alzheimers
what is an MRI
3d picture and much more pronounced than a CT
what can an MRI detect??
- Enlarged ventricles
Is there a dye used for MRIs or CTs
What must the pt do for an MRI
Enclosed structure – pt. must lie still
No pace-makers, screws (metallic objects) or for people who suffer from claustrophobia