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  1. What Factors Influence Earths Climate?
    • Both climate and weather are driven by the sun
  2. Weather
    • Weather: short-term fluctuations in a region over periods of hours or days
    • temperature, humidity, cloud cover, wind, and precipitation
  3. climate
    • Climate : long-term patterns of weather that prevail over years or centuries in a particular region
    • The amount of sunlight and water and the range of temperatures determine the climate of a region
  4. Solar energy
    • Solar energy drives the wind, ocean currents, and the global water cycle
    • Short, high-energy ultraviolet (UV) rays
    • Visible light
    • Infrared wavelengths that we experience as heat
  5. The ozone layer
    • The ozone layer, found in the middle atmosphere or stratosphere, is rich in ozone (O3) and absorbs much of the suns UV radiation

  6. Earths physical features also influence climate
    • Earths curvature and its tilted axis as it orbits the sun cause uneven heating of the surface and seasonal changes in the directness of sunlight north and south of the equator

    • Uneven heating, in conjunction with Earths rotation, generates air and ocean currents, which in turn are modified by land masses

  7. what Produces Seasons and Climate
    Earths Curvature and Tilt

  8. Air Currents and Climatic Regions
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    • The sun heats the Earths surface; the heat radiated from Earth warms the air

    • Warm air rises, cooling as it ascends; the water vapor in the air condenses and falls as rain

  9. Continents and mountains complicate weather and climate
    • If Earths surface were uniform, climate zones would occur in bands corresponding to latitude
    • However, the presence of irregularly shaped continents, which heat and cool more quickly than surrounding oceans, alters the flow of wind and water
    • These factors result in the irregular distribution of ecosystems
  10. biomes based on altitude
    • tropical forest
    • tropical and scrub forest
    • deciduous forest
    • coniferous forest
    • tundra
    • ice and snow

  11. Mountains Create Rain Shadows
    • water vapor is carried from the ocean by the prevailing winds
    • Water falls as rain or snow as the air rises and cools
    • Cool dry air sinks, warms, and absorbes water from the land

  12. There are four fundamental requirements for life

    • Nutrients from which to construct living tissue
    • Energy to power metabolic activities
    • Liquid water to serve as medium in which metabolic activities occur
    • Appropriate temperatures at which to carry out these processes- enzymes get denatured unless at a perfect temperature
  13. Terrestrial biomes
    • Terrestrial biomes support characteristic plant communities
    • Because plants cannot escape their conditions, they are precisely adapted to the climate of a particular region
    • Large land areas with similar environmental conditions and characteristic plant communities are called biomes
  14. Biomes are generally named after
    • Biomes are generally named after the dominant type of vegetation
    • Rainfall and temperature determine the soil moisture available to the plants
    • the way that rainfall and temperature vary seasonally determines which plants can grow in a given region
    • In groups
    • Identify the different terrestrial biomes
    • Biotic, abiotic characteristics
    • Human impact

  15. Human impact on rain forests
    • Agriculture can degrade soils quickly
    • Nutrients are eroded away by heavy rains
    • Exposed soils bake and become impenetrable
    • Rain forests cut for lumber and burned for ranching and farming
    • Researchers estimate that 25% of the carbon released into the atmosphere comes from cutting and burning tropical rain forests, exacerbating global warming
  16. Destruction of rain forests
    • Destruction of rain forests = 10 times the area of Connecticut , every year.
    • Over 50% of the worlds rain forests are already gone
    • a great deal of the Earths remaining biodiversity occurs in this biome
  17. all typpes of biomes
    • Tropical deciduous forests
    • The savanna
    • Deserts
    • Chaparral
    • Grasslands
    • Temperate deciduous forests
    • Taiga
    • Tundra

  18. Human impacts on freshwater lakes
    • Nutrients carried into lakes from farms, feedlots, sewage, and suburban lawns accelerate eutrophication
    • Lake Erie once suffered severe eutrophication (algea bloom)from phosphate-based detergents and farm runoff

  19. Human impact on rivers
    • Rivers have been channelized (straightened and deepened) to facilitate boat traffic, to prevent flooding, and to allow farming
    • This has increased erosion, because water flows more rapidly in channelized rivers
    • In the U.S., northwestern and northeastern salmon populations have been severely reduced by hydroelectric dams, water diversion for agriculture, erosion from logging activities, and overfishing
  20. Wetlands
    • Freshwater wetlands are called marshes, swamps, or bogs
    • Wetlands are regions where soil is covered or saturated with water
    • Many aquatic and some terrestrial plant species thrive in wetlands, which support dense growths of algae and phytoplankton, as well as both floating and rooted plants
    • Wetlands act as giant sponges, absorbing water and then gradually releasing it into rivers or aquifers, which action safeguards against flooding and erosion

  21. Wetlands also serve as giant water filters and purifiers
    • As water flows through them, suspended particles fall to the bottom
    • Wetland plants and phytoplankton absorb nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates that have washed from the land
    • Toxic substances, such as pesticides and heavy metals, may also be absorbed by wetland plants
    • Soil-dwelling bacteria break down some pesticides, rendering them harmless
    • Wetlands provide breeding grounds, food, and shelter for a great variety of birds, mammals, freshwater fish, and invertebrates, such as crayfish and dragonflies

  22. Human impact on wetlands
    • The extent of wetlands in the U.S. has decreased by about half as a result of being drained and filled for agriculture, housing, and commercial uses
    • Destruction of wetlands makes the water more susceptible to pollutants, reduces wildlife habitat, and may increase the severity of floods
    • As a result of recent laws to protect wetlands, the rate of wetland loss in the U.S. has declined

  23. Coral reefs
    • Coral reefs are complex formations that have accumulated over thousands of years from the calcium carbonate skeletons of corals
    • The coral skeleton provides anchorage, shelter, and food for an extremely diverse community of algae, fish, and invertebrates
    • Coral reefs might be considered the oceans rain forests since they are home to more than 90,000 known species, with many more yet to be identified

  24. Human impacts on coral reefs
    • Anything that diminishes the waters clarity harms the corals photosynthetic protists and hinders coral growth
    • Runoff from farming, agriculture, logging, and construction carries silt and nutrients that promote eutrophication, reducing sunlight and oxygen
    • Coral bleaching occurs when waters become too warm, causing the coral to expel the protists
    • Inhabitants of coral reefs, along with the corals themselves, are being harvested by humans faster than they can reproduce

  25. Human impacts on the open ocean
    • Two major threats to the open ocean are pollution and overfishing
    • deliberate dumping by oceangoing vessels, oil spills, and agricultural runoff
    • Overfishing, resulting from growing human populations
    • International efforts are now being made to prevent overfishing by establishing fish quotas and creating marine reserves

  26. Hydrothermal Vent Communities
    snail, worms tolerate temperatures up to 248 degrees
Card Set:
2012-05-05 17:24:04

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