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Acknowledgement of sounds and words
- FOR EXAMPLE:
- Onset: The word "bad" can be changed to "dad"
- Rhyme: The word "bad" sounds like "dad"
To be phonemically aware, means that...
...The reader and listener can recognize and manipulate specific sounds in spoken words.
The majority of phonemic awareness tasks are _________.
The key in phonemic awareness is that when you teach it to children, it can be taught with the students' eyes closed.
Blend is just a fancy word for ________.
Individual sounds within a word are called _________.
Phonemic awareness is crucial to emergent literacy.
TRUE OR FALSE?
The connection between the sounds and letters on a page
As opposed to phonemic awareness, phonics must be taught with a child's eyes __________.
The ability of the reader to recognize the sounds of a spoken language
The development of phonological skills may begin during the ________ ________.
The following are examples of ___________________.
-Rhyming and Syllabification
-Blending Sounds into Words
-Identifying the beginning or starting sounds of words and ending or closing sounds of words
-Recognizing small words contained in bigger words by removing starting sounds (hear to ear)
-Breaking words down into sounds (segmenting)
Phonological awareness skills
The following are all effective _________ strategies.
-Knowledge o0f patters, sounds, letter-sound association, and syllables
-Memorizing sight words
-Writing those words correctly many times
-Writing the words in personal writing
Reading connected pieces of text
Comprehension is dependent on fluency.
Automatic Reading (Automaticity)
Involves the development of strong orthographic representations, which allows fast and accurate identification of whole words made up of specific letter patterns
Concerns versification of text and involves such matters as which syllable of a word is accented
Standardized system for using a particular writing system (script) to write a particular language
Four Types of English Orthography
- Regular, for reading and spelling (cat, print,)
- Regular, for reading but not for spelling (float - flote)
- Rule-based (canning - doubling rule, faking - drop "e" rule)
- Irregular (beauty)
- Orthographic Awarenesss
- Syntactic Cueing
- Semantic Cueing
Ability to perceive and recall letter strings and word forms, as well as the retrieval of letters and words
Sight word vocabulary for both reading and spelling depends on this skill.
Involves evaluating a word for its part of speech and its place in the sentence
E.G. The reader determines if it is a noun, verb, adjective, etc.
Requires determining the meaning of the word, phrase, or sentence
Referes to the rules or patterened relationships that correctly create phrases and sentences from words
Primary base of a word
The affix (a morpheme that attaches to the base of a word) that is places at the start of a root word but can't make a word on its own
E.G. Pre-, re-
Follows the root world to which it attaches and appears at the end of the word it attaches and appears at the end of the word
E.G. -S, -es, -ed, -ly, and -tion
Occurs when readers are able to make predictions, select main ideas, and establish significant and supporting details of the story
Explain the difference between higher cognitive questions and lower cognitive questions.
Higher cognitive questions are also called open-ended, interpretive, evaluative, and ingerential questions. Lower cognitive questions are those that aske the student merely to recall verbatim or literally the material previously read or taught by the teacher. Application vs. recall.
A story in verse or prose with characters that represent virtues and vices
E.G. The Pilgrim's Progress
An in medias res story that is told or sung--usually in verse and accompanied by music
E.G. "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner"
Plays (comedy, modern, or tragedy) that are typically performed in five acts
E.G. A Shakespearean Play
A long poem usually of book length that reflects values inherent in the generative society
E.G. The Odyssey
A letter that is not always originally intended for public distribution, but due to the fame of the sender and/or recipient, one that becomes public domain
E.G. Think about Paul's letters
A terse take offering up a moral or exemplum
E.G. Think Asop
A traditional narrative or collection of related narratives, popularly regarded as historically factual but actually a mixture of fact and fiction
Stories that are more or less universally shared within a culture to explain its history and traditions
The longest form of fictional prose containing a variety of characterizations, settings, local color, and regionalism
The only requirement for a poem is rhythm
A highly imaginitive take set in a fantastical realm that deals with conflicts between heores, villians, and/or monsters
A concise narrative that has less background than anovel, but that typically includes many of the same plot developments and techniques
A form of writing where the only purpose is to inform
Discourse arranged chronologically
Making an experience available through one of the five senses (seeing, smelling, hearing, feeling, and tasting)
The artful adaptation of language to meet various purposes
The attitude an author takes toward his or her subject
The perspective of text
One independent clause (subject and predicate)
The do-er of an action or the element that is being joined
Made up of the verb and any other adverbs, adjectives, pronouns, or clauses that describe the action of the sentence
Made up of two independent clauses that are joined by a conjunction, a correlative conjunction, or a semi-colon
Made up of one independent clause and at lease one dependent clause
Currently happening (is playing)
Occurred in past time (learned to play)
Expresses action or a condition of future time (will probably earn)
Present Perfect Tense
Used to express action or a condition that started in the past and is continuted or completed in the present (has practiced the piano)
Past Perfect Tense
Expresses action or a condition that occurred as a precendent to some othe past action or condition (has considered playing)
Future Perfect Tense
Expresses action that started in the past or the present and will conclude at some time in the future (will have been)
When the subject of the verb is the doer of the action
When the subject of the verb is the receiver of the action
- Look for:
- -A form of the verb "to be"
- -A past participle form of the main verb
- -Subject in an object position
- -By statement between the verb phrase and the object
- -Doer not even present
Stages of a Writer
- Role Play
Realization that writing is created with insturments such as pens, pencils, crayons, and markers
A closed syllable has one and only one vowel, and it ends in a consonant
Examples include in, ask, truck, sock, stretch, twelfth, and on.
An open syllable has one and only one vowel, and that vowel occurs at the end of the syllable
Examples include no, she, I, a, and spry.
A silent-e syllable ends in an e, has one and only one consonant before that e, and has one and only one vowel before that consonant.
Examples include ate, ice, tune, slope, strobe, and these
Vowel Combination Syllables
A vowel combination syllable has a cluster of two or three vowels or a vowel-consonant unit with a sound or sounds particular to that unit
Examples include rain, day, see, veil, pie, piece, noise, toy, cue, and true
A vowel-r syllable is one which includes one and only one vowel followed by an r, or one vowel followed by an r which is followed by a silent e, or a vowel combination followed by an r
Examples include car,or, care, ire, air, and deer
In these syllables, a consonant is followed by le. The vowel sound in these syllables is the schwa sound that occurs before the l
Examples include -ble, -cle, -dle, -fle, and -gle
Adheres strictly to a phonics-based approach to spelling
Whole Language Approach
Supports the ideas that the student learns to spell by remembering what the whole word looks like rather than by remembering how it sounds
Students go through several states of development from invented spelling to conventional spelling
Structured Language Approach
Involves an in-depth focus on letter/sound relationships and progresses through letters, phonemes, blended syllables, to whole words
Teaching phonics and spelling could take four approaches:
- Traditional Approach
- Whole Language Approach
- Developmental Approach
- Structured Language Approach
Theories of language aquistition could take four approaches:
- Learning Approach
- Linguistic Approach
- Cognitive Approach
- Sociocognitive Approach
A language acquisition theory that assumed that language development evolved from learning the rules of language structures and applying them through imitation and reinforcement
A language acquisition theory that states that language ability is innate and develops through natural human maturation as environmental stiumli trigger the acquisition of syntactical structures appropriate to each exposure level
A language acquisition theory thatstates that children acquire knowledge of linguistic structures after they have acquired the cognitive structures necessary to process language
A language acquisition theory thatstates that the different aspects of linguistic, cognitive, and social knowledge are interactive elements of total human development
The assessment of phonemic awareness skills is almost always an ____________ ____________ task.
Any phonics assessment needs to combine the ___________ that make up words with the __________ that are used to represent those sounds.
Sounds and Letters
First- and second-grade children should read:
30 Correct WPM
Third-grade children should read:
40 Correct WPM
Mid-third-grade children should read:
60 Correct WPM
Fourth-grade and higher children should read:
80 Correct WPM