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What is early degenerative change of the articular cartilage due to the loss of proteoglycans, the unmasking of collagen fibers, and an increased water content in chrondrocytes?
What is the complete loss (ulceration) of articular cartilage (permanent lesion)?
What are viable, often growing fragments, of cartilage and/or bone floating free in synovial fluids?
What are multiple bone growths derived from chondrification of fibrous tissue?
Where are osteophytes mainly found? 2
- Junctions of cartilage with periosteum
- Along insertions of synovial capsules to bone
What is a common and non-specific reaction to synovial membrane to persistent injury, causing the membrane to take on a velvety appearance?
What is formation of granulation on the synovial membrane?
What is congenital contracture of a joint leading to articular rigidity (pigs), crooked calves, contracted foals, slipped tendon chickens, and spider lambs?
What are some possible causes of arthrogryposis? 4
- Intrauterine viral infections such as akabane and bluetongue
- Lupine toxicosis in cattle
- Poison hemlock in pigs
- Mn deficiency in calves and chicks
What can be a result of a reduced pelvic muscle mass, which causes instability and abnormal movement of the coxofemoral joint?
What are the four stages of Degenerative Joint Disease? 4
What is a degenerative arthropathy with periarticular exotoses of equine interphalangeal joints, especially forelimbs?
What is an arthropathy of the equine tarsus, that may result in fibrous bone ankylosis of the hock?
What are some etiological agents that can cause fibrinous inflammation in joints? 3
- Streptococcus spp.
- Haemophilus spp.
- Erysipelas spp.
What chronic bacterial infections can cause proliferative inflammation in joints? 2
- Mycoplasma spp.
- Erysipelas spp.
What is the result of reduce vascular perfusion to the lamina (P3)?
What is a metabolic disease characterized by the deposition of urates in membranes, frequently seen in poultry, reptiles, and humans?
What is a chronic condition of normal animals fed large amounts of protein, or chickens with a genetic impairment in kidney to secrete uric acid resulting in deposition of uric acid in synovial capsules?
What is primary kidney failure resulting in deposition of uric acid in the kidney, heart, and other viscera?
What type of arthritis involves the formation of IgG/IgM immune complexes and is common in small and toy breeds of dogs?
What are some diseases that can cause non-erosive arthritis? 3
- Systemic lupus erythematoses (SLE)
- Steroid responsive meningitis/arteritis
What malignancy of synovial fibrocyte origin can have both fibroblastic and epitheloid features (biphasic appearance)?
Synovial cell sarcoma
What are some examples of inflammation of the synovial bursa (bursitis)? 3
- Carpal Hygromas (cattle, goats)
- Poll Evil (C1-C2)
- Fistulous Withers (nuchal ligament and 2nd thoracic spines)
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