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What disease results when defective osteoclasts fail to reabsorb and remodel the fetal bone leading to spicules filling the medullary cavity (aplastic anemia results)?
Osteopetrosis (Marble Bone Disease)
What autosomal recessive inherited disease of newborn pigs causes abnormal periosteal bone formation on major long bones (growth plates expand in diameter)?
Congenital Cortical Hyperostosis
What disease is an autosomal recessive condition in west highland white terriers, causing irregular thickening of the mandibles (apparent at 4-7 months and can regress)?
Craniomandibular osteopathy (Lion jaw, Scottie Jaw, Westie Jaw)
What is a disorder of bone growth due to primary lesion in growth cartilage and can result in disproportionate dwarfism (animals have shortened maxilla)?
What are lesions in growth cartilage of young animals characterized by focal or multifocal failure and copper deficiency due to excess dietary zinc has been implicated?
What are some possible lesions associated with osteochondrosis? 3
- Failure of growth cartilage to become mineralized
- Irregular width of articular cartilage
- Abnormal retention of cartilage
What disease results in fracture of the overlying articular cartilage resulting in a cartilagenous or osteochondral flap (possible joint mouse)?
Osteochondrosis Dissecans (OCD)
What animals are affected by cervical vertebral myelopathy, "Wobbler's Syndrome"? 2
- Thoroughbred and Standard bred horses
- Giant dog breeds
What type of cervical vertebral myelopathy occurs in older horses (1-4 years)?
Static compression: cervical static stenosis
What type of cervical vertebral melopathy occurs in young horses (8-18 months)?
Dynamic compression: cervical vertebral instability
What breed of dog is most common affected by cervical spondylomyopathies (Wobbler syndrome)?
In what dog breeds do you see hemivertebrae (half vertebrae)? 2
In what animals do you see growth arrest of long bones? 3
- Calvs exposed to BVDV
- Dogs exposed to distemper virus
- Animals poisoned by phosphorous or lead
What happens when there is a negative balance between the formation and resorption of bone leading to reduction of bone mass?
What are some conditions that can lead to osteoporosis? 5
- Deficient in calcium
- Vitamin A toxicosis
- Adriamycin toxicity
- Fluoride toxicity
What disease of young, growing animals leads to distorted bones due to widened growth plate (deficiency in Ca, P, or vitamin D)?
What condition is associated with softening of the bones in grown animals whose growth plates have already closed?
What is the result of Osteodystrophia fibrosa (Fibrous osteodystrophy)?
Bones, particularly those of the head, become swollen, soft, thing and deformed
What are some possible causes of Osteodystrophia fibrous? 5
- Deficiency in Ca and Vit D
- High dietary Ca:P ratio
- Severe renal disease
- Ingestion of high oxalate plants
- Primary and Secondary hyperparathyroidism
What causes "big head" in horses and pigs? 2
What is the etiology behind renal hyperparathyroidism? 2
- Failure to eliminate P in the urine
- Failure of absorption of Ca
What vitamin deficiency is seen in calves and pigs and results in bone be produced at sites where resorption should be occuring?
What are some lesions associated with vitamin A deficiency? 2
- Small brain case and pressure on the CNS
- Compression and degeneration of optic nerves
In what animals do you see Hypertrophic Osteodystrophy (metaphyseal osteopathy)?
Young growing dogs of the large and giant breeds
What is the proposed underlying mechanism of periosteal exophytoses in Hypertrophic Osteopathy?
Change of the blood flow in the extremities
What animals are affected by Chronic fluorine poisoning (fluoride concentrations greater than 2500 ppm in bone)?
Too much of what vitamin can cause a toxic osteodystrophy in cats leading to fused vertebral ankylosis?
Too much of what vitamin can produce bone lesions of osteosclerosis, denser skeleton, hypercalcemia, and calcification of soft tissues?
What is a piece of necrotic bone isolated from the remaining viable bone?
In what animals do you see Femoral head-Legg Calve Perthes disease?
Young small, and miniature breed dogs
What can cause granulomatous inflammation of the bone?
Actinomyces bovis in cattle (lumpy jaw)
What is the most common skeletal neoplasm of dogs and cats (common in mature, large breed dogs)?
Osteosarcoma (frequently metastasizes)