Chapter 11

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  1. What do endogenic forces do?
    They lift up mountain ranges.
  2. Define igneous rock.
    One of the basic rock types that has solidified and crystallized from a hot molten state.
  3. What is the name of melted material that has cooled deep below the surface?
    Plutonic rock (aka intrusive)
  4. What is the name for a rock that has cooled quickly above the surface?
    Volcanic or extrusive rock
  5. Which would have larger crystals: Plutonic or volcanic rock?
  6. What is sedimentary rock?
    Rock that is made of other rock pieces or chemicals.
  7. What is metamorphic rock?
    Existing igneous and sedimentary rock that has undergone profound physical and chemical changes under increased pressure and temperature.
  8. Granite, diorite, and gabbro: intrusive or extrusive?
  9. What are 3 examples of extrusive rock?
    Rhyolite, andesite, and basalt
  10. What kind of rocks are felsic?
    Those composed of silicone dioxide (SiO2). They are light in weight and color.
  11. What kind of rock is mafic?
    Those composed of iron magnesium (FeMg). They are darker and heavier.
  12. What are th ebuilding blocks of rock?
    Quartz, feldspar, mica, pyroxene, amphibole, olivine.
  13. What are minerals characterized by?
    Color, texture, and shape of crystals.
  14. How is hardness measured?
    Using the MOH scale.
  15. What minerals is hardest on the MOH scale?
  16. What is the name for a force that weathers land down?
  17. Weathering, erosion, transportation, and _______ ( definition )
    lithification ( process by which unconsolidated materials are converted into coherent solid rock )
  18. What are clastic sedimentary rocks composed of?
    Wheather and fragmented rocks
  19. What are some examples of clastic sedimentary rock?
    Conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone, claystone, and shale
  20. What are chemical (non-clastic) sedimentary rocks composed of?
    From dissolved mineral that is transported in solution and chemically precipiated from solution.
  21. What are these rocks composed of?

    Rock Salt
    • CaCo3 (calcite)
    • CaMg (dolomite)
    • CaSO4 (gypsum)
    • NaCl (halite)
  22. What are some examples of metamorphic rock?
    Quartzite, slate, schist, marble, and gneiss.
  23. How old is the earth?
    4.6 billion years
  24. In what era was most of the life on earth in the ocean?
    Paleozoic era
  25. How did the ozone layer form?
    Plants produced oxygen in the ocean, and escaped into the atmosphere.
  26. In what era was there not much life?
    The pre-cambrian era.
  27. In what era were the dinosaurs around?
    The Mesozoic era.
  28. What is our current era, period, and epic?
    The Cenozoic era, quaternary period, and holocene epic.
  29. What era was the ice age?
    The Pleistocene era.
  30. What is a batholith?
    A magma chamber that invades crustal rocks.
  31. What is the name of the technqiue that involves rock layers?
    Relative dating.
  32. What technique is used to determine exact or absolute age of rock?
    Absoulte/radiometric dating
  33. Where is the oldest material on earth located?
    The core
  34. Why is the core solid?
    There is not enough room to expand to liquid.
  35. What is the term used to describe the plastic-like material on the crust?
  36. How does a subduction zone occur?
    The ocean floor is denser and dives underneath the continental crust.
  37. What does sea-floor spreading create, and how?
    Mid-ocean ridges, which are mountain chains. Upwelling flows of magma from hot areas in the upperr mantle and asthenosphere and perhaps the deeper lower mantle
Card Set
Chapter 11
The Dynamic Planet
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