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Define: Innate immunity
Defense against any pathogen.
What is the first line of defense in innate immunity?
- 1) Skin
- 2) Mucous membrane n secretions
- 3) Normal microbiota
Second line of defense in innate immunity?
- 1) Natural kilers
- 2) Phagocytes
- 3) Inflammation
- 4) Anti-microbial substance
What are TOLL like receptors?
- 1) Attach to components of MO.
- 2) Induce release of cytokines
- 3) Recognize PAMPs
What does PAMPs stand for?
Pathogen Associated Molecular Pattern
Cells that phagocytize orgnanisms?
- 1) Neutrophils
- 2) Macrophages
Ways MO avoid phagocytosis?
- 1) Inhibit adherance
- 2) Kill phagocytes
- 3) Lyse phagocytes
- 4) Escape phagosome
- 5) Prevent phagosome-lysome fusion
- 6) Survive in phagolysosome
Other phagocytosis besides destruction of MO?
T-cells can recognize pathogen and cause B-cells to attack.
List the stages of inflammation.
- 1) Vasodialation
- 2) Margination and emigration of WBC
- 3) Tissue repair
3 pathways of complement activation?
- 1) Classical pathway
- 2) Alternative pathway
- 3) Lectin pathway
Tell me about Classical Pathway.
Initiated. Ab binds to Ag.
What's Alternative Pathway?
- 1) Does not involve antibodies.
- 2) Initiated
Complement factors in the Alternate Pathway?
Factor B, D, P.
Macrophage ingest MO->release chemicals->Sti. liver->release lectin
Lectin Pathway's function?
Opsonin to phagocytosis.
Activates C2 and C4.
3 effects of complement activation?
- 1) Opsonization or immune adherence: enhanced phagocytosis
- 2) MAC: cytolysis
- 3) Attract phagocytes (inflammation)
Alpha IFN and Beta IFN? (interferons)
Cause cells to produce antiviral proteins that inhibit viral replication.
Gamma IFN? (interferon)
Cause Neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytize bacteria.
Define: Adaptive Immunity.
Specific defense. Lymphocytes recognize threat, let others know.
T-H2 cells activate B-cells to attack foreign shit.
T-H1 activates macrophages to kill infected shit.
T helper 2 cells does what?
T1 helper cells do what?
The shit on the cell itself. Recognized by MHCs.
Epitopes are the keys. Antigens can have different "keys" that can "lock" into different antibodies. The point of interaction.
The fuck's a Hapten?
Small molecule that's pussy shit, but once it finds a larger molecule, it becomes antigenic.
Used to activate and inhibit immune responses.
B-cells mature where.
T-cells mature where.
Define: Plasma cells.
Cells that make a shit load of anitbodies.
Cells that haven't been exposed to the antigen.
B-cell that's seen the antigen. Produce plasma cells to create antibodies for that antigen.
CD8 a marker for what?
Tc. Cytotoxic T-cells.
What activates Tc cells?
Thelper cells with cytokines.
Name APC (antigen-presenting-cell)
- 1) Dendrites
- 2) Macrophages
- 3) B-cells