Health Ch 11

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Author:
trambam
ID:
152038
Filename:
Health Ch 11
Updated:
2012-05-06 00:40:18
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health
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Description:
Cardiovascular System
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  1. Cardioversion
    restoration of normal heart rhythm by electrical shock
  2. contract
    shorten, reduce in size
  3. Coronary
    pertaining to the heart; coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle
  4. Diastole
    dilation of the heart; resting phase or filling of the ventricles, alternating with systole
  5. Infarction
    area of tissue death (necrosis) caused by loss of O2 (ischemia) as a result of obstruction of circulation to the area
  6. Pulcomary circulation
    carrying venous blood from R ventricle to lungs & returning oxygenated blood to the L atrium
  7. Rate
    expression of speed/ frequency of an event in relation to a specified amt. of time, # of contractions of the heart per minute
  8. Rhythm
    measured movement, recurrence of an action or function at regulat intervals, interval of heart contractins
  9. Stenosis
    narrowing/ stricture of a duct/canal
  10. Stethoscope
    instrument used to listen to body sounds (auscultation)
  11. Systemic circulation
    • general circulation:
    • carrying O2nated blood from L ventricle to tissues of body & returning venous blood to R atrium
  12. Systole
    • filling of atria & contraction of ventridcles
    • alternating w/diastole
  13. Vessel
    any 1 of the many tubules in the body that carry fluid
  14. Functions of cardiovascular system
    • transports nutrients & O2
    • transports waste products from cells to kidney fro excretion
    • distributes hormones & antibodies
    • controls body temperature & maintain electrolyte balance
  15. atria
    • top 2 chambers
    • blood enters heart through atria
  16. ventricles
    • lower 2 chambers
    • blood leaves heart through ventricles
  17. septum
    • divides R & L sides of heart
    • if there's a hole, blood will mix
  18. pulmonary circulation
    R side pumps deO2 blood to lungs
  19. systemic circulation
    L side pumps O2ated blood to rest of body
  20. hepatic
    • path of blood from intestines, gall bladder, pancreas, stomach, & spleen through liver
    • blood returns to R side of heart from body to complete cycle
  21. antrioventricular valve
    seperates atria & ventricles
  22. semilunar valves
    seperates ventricles from pulmonary artery & aorta
  23. path of systemic circulation
    superior/ inferior vena cava > R atrium > tricuspid valve > R ventricle > pulmonary semilunar valve > pulmonary artery > lu|ng > pulmonary vein > L atrium > bicuspid mitral valve > L ventricle > aortic semilunar valve > aorta > body
  24. endocardium tissue
    smooth layers of cells lining inside of heart and forms valves
  25. myocardium issue
    thickest layer consisting of muscle tissue
  26. pericardium
    • double membrane covers outside of the heart
    • provides lubrication between heart & surrounding structures to prevent tissue damage
  27. sinoatrial cells (SA node)
    • in R atrium
    • starts heart
  28. atrioventricular node (AV node)
    • sends impulse into lower portions of heart AV bundle/ bundle of HIS
    • stimulates Purkinje fibers
  29. Purkinje fibers
    causes ventricles to contract
  30. arteries
    • carry blood away from heart
    • blood is O2ated
    • have muscular layer of tissue that pumps blood out of body
  31. aorta
    largest artery in body, which branches into smaller arteries
  32. arterioles
    • smaller vessels
    • blood moves from arterioles to capillaries
  33. capillaries
    • microscopic vessels carry blood between arterial & venous vessels
    • gases, waste, & nutrients exchanged
    • bloog gives up O2
  34. pulse
    • surge of blood against the walls of arteries
    • 8 pulse points
    • 60-90 beats per min = normal for adults
  35. blood pressure
    force of blood against walls of arteries
  36. murmurs
    • abnormal/extra sound classified by timing, intensity, location, pitch, & quality
    • may be benign/indicate a disorder
  37. thrill
    • vibration felt by touch over an artery
    • caused by abnormal flow of blood
  38. electrocardiogram (ECG)
    • measures graphically the pattern of electrical activity in heart contractions
    • all heart activites have characteristic wave pattern
  39. echocardiography
    • uses ultrasonic waves to show structures & motions
    • transducer plots sound echoes to produce a graphic picture
  40. cardiac catheterization
    • used to measure pressure in chambers to take blood samples & to view obstructions in vessels
    • a tube is inserted through blood vessels into heart
    • dye is then released & traced using xray
  41. aneurysm
    area of a blood vessel bulges because of a weakness on the wall
  42. atherosclerosis
    narrowing blood vessels caused by deposits of fatty material containing calcium & cholesterol
  43. cardiac arrhythmia
    disturbance of heart rhythm caused by defect in heat's pacemaker cells or damaged heart tissue
  44. cardiovascular disease
    general term for arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis, & related conditions called "coronary artery disease"
  45. congenital heart disease
    group of disorders affect ab. 25,000 newborns each year in US
  46. congestive heart failure
    inability to pump blood to meet body's needs
  47. hypertension
    high blood pressure
  48. myocardial infarction
    aka heart attack
  49. phlebitis
    inflammed vein often with formation of a clot
  50. rheumatic heart disease
    • heart muscle & valves are damaged by a recurrent bacterial infection
    • usually begins in throat
  51. varicose veins
    veins become enlarged and ineffective
  52. 1st heart replacement
    • 1967
    • approx. 2,300 heart transplants each year in US
  53. 1st artificial heart
    • Jarvik, 7
    • connected to an external power source & pump
  54. AbioCor (self contained artificial heart)
    • 2001
    • designed to test how long it would extend life for people w/end stage heart failure
  55. FDA approved...
    • 2005
    • approved use of Syn Cardia CardioWest Temporary Total Artificial Heart used in patients w/irreversible failure of the ventricles
  56. Cholesterol controversy
    • LDL (low density lipoprotein) vs HDL (high density lipoprotein)
    • type of fat in diet, not the amount, changes cholesterol level
    • limit intake of saturated fats & eliminate trans fats
  57. trans fats
    • solid/semi solid @ room temperature
    • worst kind of fat
    • margarines, vegetable oils, shortening, deep-fried, & most fast foods

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