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What percent of patients respond favorably to Antipsychotic drugs?
What do antipsychotic drugs do?
Reduce positive symptoms (not negative)
What are the side effects of antipsychotic drugs?
- Compliance problems
- Tardive dyskinesia
Too much dopamine makes the brain appear to have
Not enough dopamine makes the brain appear to have:
How many types of Anti-depressants are there?
- MAO Inhibitors
What neurotransmitter(s) are associated with depression?
Norepinephrine and seratonin
What do MAO Inhibitors do?
They block the enzyme (also, there are dangerous sde effects that have to do with foods)
What do trycyclics do?
- Elevate norepinephrine and seratonin
- Prevents reuptake
What percent of people respond well to eith MAO Inhibotors or Tricyclics?
What does SSRI stand for?
Selective serotonin uptake inhibitor
What do SSRI's do?
Slows reuptake of serotonin
Give an example of a SSRI
Pros and cons of using a SSRI
- Suicide? (Not really)
What does SNRI stand for?
Selective Nonepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor
How would you treat bipolar disorder?
With Lithium carbonate
What are the problems/ fixes with using lithium carbonate?
- The mechanism as to how it works is unclear
- Getting the doage right is tricky
Valproate is safer
What are examples of tranquilizers?
Valium or Xanax
What do tranquilizers do?
They increase GABA activity
What is GABA?
An inhibitory neurotransmitter
What are problems with using tranquilizers?
- They are only for short term use
- Sedative side effects
What class of drugs do you use to treat schizophrenia?
What type of drug do you use to treat depression?
What class of drug do you use to treat mild anxiety?
What class of drug do you use to treat bipolar disorder?
Antipsychotics are used to treat:
Antidepressants are used to treat:
Depression, anxiety disroders, OCD
Tranquilizers are used to treat:
Lithium carbonate is used to treat:
What are some problems with taking medications?
- The Placebo effect
- Not taking meds due to side effects
- Regression to the Mean
What percentage of people will stop taking meds due to side effects?
1/2 to 2/3
Explain Regression to the Mean?
The tendency for someone who scores at an extreme on a test (hihg or low) to be closer to the mean if the test is retaken (a lower score for those who scored high, a higher score for those who scored low)
What is ECT?
Electroconvulsive Therapy aka Shock therapy
What happens when someone has an ECT session?
Electrical pulses are sent to the brain and a seizure is induced.
What is ECT used for TODAY?
It's used to treat severe cases of depression (not schizophrenia, which is what it was originally used for)
How many paitients a year have ETC treatments?
Pros and cons of ETC
Faster than meds