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  1. Confederation
    Constit. arrangement in which sovereign states create a central gov't but limit its powers and don't give it direct authority over ppl.
  2. Interest Group
    Org. of ppl sharing a common interest or goal that seek to inflluence the making of public policy
  3. Impeachment
    charges against a pres. approved by a maj. of house of reps
  4. federalism
    gov't authority shared by national and st. gov't
  5. exclusionary rule
    improperly gather evidence may not be intorduced in a trial
  6. electoral college
    ppl chose 2 cast ea. states vote in a pres. election. Each state can cast 1 vote for ea. senator and rep. it has.
  7. dissenting opinion
    signed opinion in which one or more justices disagree with the majority view.
  8. democracy
    rule of many
  9. deficit
    what occurs when the gov't in 1 year spends more $ than it takes in from taxes.
  10. civil rights
    rights of the ppl 2 be treated w/out unreasonable or unconstit. differences.
  11. bureaucracy
    lg. complex org. composed of appointed officials.
  12. bill of rights
    1st 10 amendments to the constit.
  13. bill
    proposed law presented 2 a legislative body for consideration.
  14. ballot
    device boteres use 2 register a choice in an election
  15. anarchy
    absense of all gov't
  16. alien
    foreign born citizen or non-citizen
  17. amendment
    a change or addition 2 a constit. or law
  18. checks & balances
    system of overlapping the pwrs of the legis, exec, and jud. branch 2 permit each branch 2 check the actions of others
  19. affirmative action
    policy that requires most employers take positive steps 2 remedy the effects of past discrimination
  20. cabinet
    pres. advisory body. traditionally made up of the heads of the exec. dept. & other officials
  21. implied powers
    pwrs that are assumed from the expressed powers.
  22. full faith and credit
    Clause in the Constitution (Article 4, Section 1) requiring each state to recognize the civil judgments rendered by the courts of the other states and to accept their public records and acts as valid.
  23. expressed powers
    Powers the Constitution specifically grants to one of the branches of the national government.
  24. popular soverignty
    A belief that ultimate power resides in the people.
  25. monoply
    Domination of an industry by a single company that fixes prices and discourages competition; also, the company that dominates the industry by these means.
  26. suffrage
    the right to vote
  27. minor party
    Domination of an industry by a single company that fixes prices and discourages competition; also, the company that dominates the industry by these means.
  28. mass media
    means of communication that are reaching the public, including newspapers and magazines, radio, television (broadcast, cable, and satellite), films, recordings, books, and electronic communication.
  29. constituents
    The residents of a congressional district or state.
  30. president pro tempore
    Officer of the Senate selected by the majority party to act as chair in the absence of the vice president.
  31. treaty
    formal, public agreement between the United States and one or more nations that must be approved by two thirds of the Senate.
  32. veto
    formal decision to reject a bill
  33. civil law
    A law that governs relationships between individuals and defines their legal rights.
  34. criminal law
    A law that defines crimes against the public order.
  35. defendant
    In a criminal action, the person or party accused of an offense.
  36. precedent
    decision made by a higher court such as a circuit court of appeals or the Supreme Court that is binding on all other federal courts.
  37. due process
    Established rules and regulations that restrain government officials.
  38. jim crow laws
    State laws formerly pervasive throughout the South requiring public facilities and accommodations to be segregated by race; ruled unconstitutional.
  39. sales tax
    General tax on sales transactions, sometimes exempting food and drugs.
  40. judicial review
    power of courts 2 declare laws unconstit.
  41. necessary and proper clausee
    allows cong. 2 pass laws not enumerated in constit.
  42. police power
    state power 2 enact laws promoting health, well being
  43. political efficacy
    belief that u can take part in gov't, they will listen
  44. probable cause
    reasonable cause 4 search warrant or arrest
  45. public opinion
    how ppl think or fell about certain things
  46. quorum
    minimum # of mem that must be present in cong. 2 conduct business
  47. representative democracy
    leaders make decisions by winning election
  48. reserved powers
    powers given 2 state gov't only
  49. search warrant
    judge order 2 search
  50. chief exec.
    pres. of the u.s.
  51. citizen
    a legally recognized person
  52. commander in chief
    A head of state or officer in supreme command of a country's armed forces.
  53. compromise
    An agreement or a settlement of a dispute that is reached by each side making concessions.
  54. consensus
    general agreement
  55. constitution
    A body of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is acknowledged to be governed.
  56. county
    A territorial division of some countries, forming the chief unit of local administration.
  57. deportation
    the act of removing/exiling a person
  58. dictatorship
    gov't ruled by one person who controls everything
  59. direct tax
    A tax, such as income tax, that is levied on the income or profits of the person who pays it, rather than on goods or services.
  60. foreign aid
    $ or resources given from another country
  61. framers
    writers of the constit.
  62. government
    a body of people who set and administer public policy
  63. income tax
    tax taken from a persons pay check
  64. independent
    person not affliated with a political party
  65. judicial branch
    responsible for administration of justice
  66. jurisdiction
    The official power to make legal decisions and judgments.
  67. legislative branch
    law making body
  68. limited gov't
    gov't where interference with peoples lives is limited
  69. magna carta
    ) 'Magna Carta' is document accepted by King John of England on June 15, 1215 which contains a series of laws establishing the rights of English barons and major landowners thereby limiting the authority of the King
  70. major party
    holds substansal influence in politics
  71. media
    means of communication
  72. metropolitan area
    densly populated urban core. businesses
  73. monarchy
    king, queen. rules whole life chosen by heredity
  74. multiparty system
    system where two parties have chance to gain control of the gov't
  75. nomination
    being chosen, appointed
  76. one party system
    only one political party forms the gov't
  77. pardon
    act of forgiving
  78. payroll tax
    a tax levied against the amount of wages and salaries paid workers.
  79. plaintiff
    person who brings a case against another
  80. platform
    list of objectives a new gov't wants to complete while in office
  81. polling place
    building where voting takes place.
  82. pres. of the senate
    vice president of the u.s.
  83. progressive tax
    any tax in which the rate increases as the amount subject to taxation increases.
  84. propaganda
    Information, esp. of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote or publicize a particular political cause or point of view.
  85. property tax
    a capital tax on property imposed by municipalities; based on the estimated value of the property.
  86. ratification
    making something valid by formally ratifying or confirming it
  87. reapportionment
    reallotment: a new apportionment (especially a new apportionment of congressional seats in the United States on the basis of census
  88. redress of grievances
    the right to make a complaint to, or seek the assistance of, one's gov't
  89. regristration
  90. regressive tax
    imposed in such a manner that the tax rate decreases as the amount subject to taxation increases
  91. rule of law
    a state of order in which events conform to the law.
  92. segregation
    The action or state of setting someone or something apart from other people or things or being set apart.
  93. session
    meeting of judicial body to conduct business
  94. speaker of the housee
    presiding officer of the house of reps
  95. state
    concerned with civil gov't. territory or political unit
  96. tax return
    A form on which a taxpayer makes an annual statement of income and personal circumstances
  97. term
    amount of time a public official can serve
  98. unconstitutional
    not in accordance w/ the constit.
  99. civil liberties
    one's freedom to exercise one's rights as guaranteed under the laws of the country.
Card Set:
2012-05-04 05:09:22
AP Government Final

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