Interwar terms edited.txt

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  1. Romanov family
    • russian tsar and family, ruling class of Russia during WWI
    • february revolution 1917 = tsar��s abdication and their arrest
    • executed during the red terror (July) by the bolsheviks
    • start of new government by Lenin leading into reign of Stalin
    • They were in position of opposition against Lenin, leader of whites which was supported as tsar appointed by God,
    • had to be executed to allow power, especially+ to prevent tsar��s family from leading the whites
    • Fueled into the Russian people��s fear of Cheka
    • Did not try hard to modernize Russia or to adapt universal education -> to prevent uprising of peasants who they feared educated peasantry would rise up -> left rural and agrarian base, inhibited modernization
  2. White Russians
    • anti-communist forces (white army)
    • supported absolute monarchy, nationalistic/patriotic, supportive of the Tsar and tried to restore the Tsar��s absolute power
    • opposition to reds during the Russian civil war,
    • fought over control of Russian government
    • Received support from allies and sometimes central powers = used by Reds to say that the Whites favoured invasion of capitalism which was unflavoured by Russian public
    • Often lawless and extremely disorganized, defeated by the Red army because of military and ideological disunity compared to Red army��s increasing determination and unity
    • Defeat of the White army led to control of Russia by Lenin��s Red communist government
  3. Red Army
    • People��s and Peasant��s read army, who were communist supporters, also called Bolsheviks
    • led by Lenin, Trotsky, Stalin
    • defeated whites in Russian civil war and seized control of Russian government
    • "War Communism" seized food from peasants, -> famine for 7.5 mil
    • War communism introduced nationalization of industries, state controlled railroads, rationing of food and made work of peasants obligation in order to keep Red Army supplied with weapons and food
  4. Alexander Kerensky
    • part of socialist party and member of duma
    • called for removal of Tsar Nicholas II
    • supported neither sides in the civil war
    • Appointed minister of justice after abdication -> introduced freedom of press, suffrage, no discrimination.
    • 2nd head of provisional gov't until Lenin won vote after October revolution ->wanted to continue war with Russian to sustain economy with support from allied forces = unpopular among middle and lower class Russians
    • Soldiers had believed that provisional government would end war felt betrayed against promise of ��bread, land, peace�� -> army principle disintegrated, large number of men deserted
    • His inconsistent and impractical policies created instability in army/country on withdrawing from the war
    • worked initially w/ Bolsheviks because he isolated right wings but trusted left wings -> greatly empowered Bolsheviks and allowed military control
    • Keresnky -> Bolsheviks were not taken seriously until they stormed winter palace
    • government was ended as his few left over troops quickly turned over to Bolsheviks; also left town to search for back up troops ended up as a failure and fled -> allowed Bolsheviks to easily have control over the palace
  5. Leon Trotsky
    • Was first a member of social democrat party, met marxists ->lenin
    • First a menshevik: supporter of Julius Martov and later joined the Bolsheviks party
    • Organized october revolution -> allowing Bolsheviks to come to power
    • Delegate who negotiated treaty of brest-litovsk with Germany and Austria, who wanted better terms than brest litovsk -> but forced to give up so much land by Germany and Austria unless Germany was going to invade
    • First of few to recognize the problems in Russian Red Army -> insufficient numbers, lack of knowledgeable office, almost absence of coordination and subordination
    • worked with lenin against stalin until Lenin��s death, then loss against stalin in seizing power of the party -> led to stalin��s complete power
  6. Politburo
    • principal policy making/executive committee of communist party
    • supreme control over policies governing
    • Communist Party of Soviet Union had 5 man politburo: Lenin, Stalin, Trotsky, Kamenev, Krestinsky
    • Nominated by central party to govern the country -> slowly took over central committee as the most powerful
    • Had complete power after stalin was in power -> led to possibility for Stalin to have mass trials and obtain total control
    • introduced reforms (took away business, strikes outlawed, land redistribution)
    • allowed great power and control by CHEKA
  7. Bolsheviks
    • Faction of the social democratic party that split from Mensheviks
    • Majority faction due to crucial vote
    • supported communist ideas, majority representing the workers class
    • formed and led by Lenin
    • german supported bolsheviks ->hope to end war on eastern front -> treaty of brest-litovsk
    • prompted revolution = stormed winter palace ->came into power through October revolution
    • gained power due to easy promises: promised Russia would be removed from war land for peasants,"peace bread land��
  8. Mensheviks
    • minority of social democratic party, reduced after socialist democratic party split with Lenin
    • supported Julius Martov
    • more moderate and sensitive towards liberal opposition
    • cooperated with constitutional democrats instead of socialist revolutionaries
    • Trotsky initially menshevik turned Bolshevik
    • that they supported the provisional government and even supported Russia staying in the war -> whom them made coalition government with
    • Actively contributed to trade union movement
    • Believed that provisional government necessary to communism compared to Bolsheviks who violently opposed provisional government
    • opposition of Bolsheviks
    • had majority support at first, but as 1917 went to they lost support of the people to the Bolsheviks
  9. Provisional Government
    • gov't that came in power under Kerensky after tsar abdication.
    • Associated with middle class didn't rep. working class = problem
    • would not give land to peasants = wrong, they were seen as not understanding the desires of the poor
    • tried to continue Russia in WWI = bad, war was greatly hated by Russian people who suffered from WWI
    • did not take Bolsheviks seriously and often seen as too soft on the Bolsheviks -> gave chance for Bolsheviks seizing power
    • overtaken by bolsheviks when stormed winter palace in October Revolution
    • 1917 red guards defended city from Kornilov -> gained sympathy and support for communists instead of Kerensky -> benefited Lenin even in exile
    • In its short reign, provisional government passed very progressive legislations -> some of the most liberal legislations in Europe atm (independence of church from state, rural self-governance, fundamental civil rights -> freedom of speech, assembly, more freedom, economic redistribution in country side)
    • Also granted more rights to previously suppressed regions -> Poland, Lithuania, Ukraine

    • Gregory Zinoviev
    • A Bolshevik revolutionist
    • Helped organize general strike in st. Petersburg
    • Responsible for petrograd��s defense during intense clash with whites in 1919
    • Editor of pravda (bolshevik magazine)
    • Powerful figure after Lenin��s illness -> allianced w/ stalin and kamenev against Trotsky initially, accused Trotsky of many faults and resulted in reduction of Trotsky��s power in conferences
    • After falling out with Trotsky, argued for Trotsky��s expulsion from communist party -> allowed Stalin to play the peaceful moderator role
    • After Stalin joined with Bukharin and Rykov and relations broke, Zinoviev��s powers were greatly reduced , finally joined with trotsky to overthrow stalin ->expelled from the party
    • After opposing Stalin openly, submissed to Stalin and earned lower positions back -> courted by Bukharin -> which was used to Stalin to accused Bukharin with factionalism to take Bukharin out
    • charged with trying to kill stalin ->executed One of the ��trial of the 16��, which was the beginning for the following show trials and more elaborate crimes
    • partly responsible for failure of communism in Germany
  10. Lev Kamenev
    • one of the Bolshevik leaders of social democratic party w/ lenin
    • organized many railroad strikes (propagandist)
    • one of the men supposed to take over after Lenin
    • joined w/ stalin against trotsky to marginalize Trotsky and helped Stalin retain his position as General Secretary of the Central Committee at the Party Congress
    • After Stalin turned on him and Kamenev publically, turned to help Trotsky until Trotsky exposed that they were against the October Revolution
    • With Zinoviev, accused Trotsky of various mistakes and worse during the Russian Civil War -> damaged his military reputation and was forced to resign as People's Commissar of Army and Fleet Affairs + Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council
    • Until they realized their mistake in helping Stalin and then tried again to side with Trotsky to defeat Stalin
    • After opposing Stalin openly, submissed to Stalin and earned lower positions back -> courted by Bukharin -> which was used to Stalin to accused Bukharin with factionalism to take Bukharin out
    • executed by stalin's trials
  11. Stalin
    • member of bolshevik party, eventually took over as leader of communist russia
    • part of those that brought about October revolution, later held position as general secretary of the party
    • while secretary general not regarded as top position, Stalin managed to use it to gain and consolidate power
    • extremely paranoid
    • important role in defeating the white army
    • initiated red terror led to 800 socialists shot
    • executed millions of Kulaks who refused to cooperate
    • supported spanish civil war: republican gov't
    • responsible for the grain famine of Ukraine
    • replaced New Economic Policy (of Lenin) in 1928 with command economy + 5 year plan -> launched rapid industrialization, economic collectivization in country side -> transformed USSR into major industrial power
    • millions sent to labour camps and millions deported and exaile
    • campaign against Stalin��s enemies -> led to Great Purge deplete red army leaders, civilians who ��wanted to overthrow Soviet government�� -> Russia was unprepared for ww2 and failed to allie with France and Britain -> leading to the signing of the non-aggression pact just at the end of the interwar era
  12. Vladimir Lenin
    • Russian Marxist revolutionary
    • brought back by germans in hopes of ending eastern front
    • argued with Martov over Social democratic party ->small party of professional revolutionaries
    • founded and led bolsheviks after argument and split of the social democratic party
    • headed the soviet state in the initial years (1917 �C 1924)
    • realized that it was only possible to overthrow provisional government through armed uprising -> pushed for and organized the October revolution and stormed the Winter Palace to seize power
    • attempt at his life/ also his approval of Stalin��s suggestion began the period of the red terror
    • After the 1921 Kronstadt Rebellion, replaced war communism with the New Economic Policy (NEP), and successfully rebuilt industries and agriculture
    • died before being able to take Stalin away from power even though he recognized that Stalin as a threat and did not approve of Stalin = cause indirectly of Stalin's power
  13. Nikolai Bukharin
    • Russian Marxist and Bolshevik revolutionary, Soviet politician, editor of party newspaper -> Pravda
    • Drafted, introduced and defended revolutionary decrees during October revolution
    • Believed passionately in world revolution which Russia would supposedly bring on, didn��t believe in drawing out of WWI
    • Bitter towards Lenin in Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, some urged him to arrest Lenin, which he rejected but was used by Stalin against him in show trials of 1938
    • After change of position in 1921, he then rejected world revolution -> thought focus on communism in Russia as priority, economic policies about kulaks supported by stalin
    • initially supporter of Stalin after Lenin��s death
    • formulated the thesis of "Socialism in One Country" put forth by Stalin in 1924, which argued that socialism (in Marxist theory, the transitional stage from capitalism to communism) could be developed in a single country, even one as underdeveloped as Russia.
    • Supported the triumvirate( Kamenrev, Zinoviev and stalin) in marginalizing Trotsky
    • His continued support for NEP when Stalin wanted to change it, reduced Bukharin��s power/reputation/influence
    • executed by stalin's orders
  14. Benito Mussolini (le duce)
    • Italian politician, led National Fascist Party, key in development of Fascist ideology
    • gained power while italy was in turmoil: economic/strikes
    • his party came into power in March on Rome and ousted old prime minister
    • he worked to make Italy into totalitarian state with him as supreme leader (il duce)
    • favoured restoration of state authority and integration of Fasci di Combattimento into armed force, and identification of party with the state
    • took control out of economic troubles (by favouring wealthy industrial and agrarian classes)
    • Italian��s invasion of Corfu proved League of Nations powerless and Greece was forced to comply -> encouraged Mussolini and Hitler to push the boundaries of the Allies even further
    • wanted revenge for treatment in ww1, invaded Ethiopia, which Mussolini approved to use mustard gas and phosphine against Ethiopians -> condemned by LON
    • acted as inspirationi to Hitler as Mussolini succeeded before Hitler -> took ideas to build Hitler��s own Fascist totalitarian state
    • believed that Germany was stronger than France + Britain -> allied with Germany -> fueled the end of interwar era
  15. Leni Riefenstahl
    • German film director, actress
    • Directed victory of faith/triumph of the will/Olympia (Nazi propaganda) -> became rousing success in Germany and achieved international recognition
    • found fame after the film
    • she denied involvement in propaganda but prominence in 3rd reich and personal relationship with Hitler it ruined her film career after Hitler lost his power
    • one of the prime examples of Nazi film prop.
    • Spread the idea of Germany returning as a great power and Hitler is the true leader that will glorify Germany
    • Attracted many men and women to admire Nazis and won Nazis friends and allies all over, contributed in large part to build cult of personality around Hitler
    • Created the illusion of unanimous support for his policy
  16. Blackshirts
    • Fascist paramilitary groups in Iatly -> armed squad under Mussolini
    • Italian fascists used by Mussolini as military arm of fascist political movement -> tool for violent fascist Italianization of territories given to Italy for joining WWI
    • enforced fear for the regime -> none dared step out and stop Mussolini��s fascist movements
    • used by Mussolini to break general strike in 1920 and repression of state to crush socialist movement
    • In march on Rome, took all the strategic positions in the country -> put Mussolini in power
    • Fought in Spanish civil war and Ethiopian campaign
    • later copied by others who shared similar political ideas (such as Hitler in Germany)
  17. Brownshirts (SA Sturm Abteilung / storm troopers)
    • Paramilitary organization of Nazi Party, Hitler's private army
    • Carried out numerous violent acts against competing socialist groups ->Played key role in Hitler��s rise to power
    • Protected party meetings
    • Beat up opposition and instilled fear in people ->no one dared to speak up
    • inspired by black shirts of Mussolini
    • Used for Hitler��s acquisition of political power until Nazis evolved to unquestioned leaders of government
    • After Hitler��s gained power, they were independent and street violence -> seen by Hitler as direct threat to newly gained political power and executed during purge ��The Night of the Long Knives��
  18. Fasci di combattimenti
    • Italian fascio founded by Mussolini in 1919 -> Italian name for Mussolini's political group of fascists -> later became the National Fascist Party
    • consisted of former pro-war agitators
    • one step on the rise to power = musso.
    • start of fascist reign fr which hitler learned fr
  19. Central committee
    • Highest organ of the Communist Party between party congresses
    • Responsible for electing the politburo -> who made the central decisions
    • During Lenin��s leadership, central committee was the highest authority between congresses -> until the politburo was set up to answer immediate responses
    • During Lenin Era, was key in decision making -> Lenin managed to achieve majority vote in central committee for peace relationship with Germans -> led to the treaty of Brest-Litovsk.
    • As committee membership increased, role of it slowly eclipsed by politburo
    • Originally meetings served as a place for debating issues
    • politburo used it as a front to introduce new policies
    • Stalin��s position as general secretary gave him domination of entire structure and apparatus with authority over appointments/assignments of different levels of the committee -> eventually used it to control and to eliminate his opposition through congress meetings

    • Hitler
    • Austrian-born German politician -> later became leader of german workers party (NSDAP) and later the nazis
    • Chancellor and dictator of Germany near the end stages of the interwar period
    • charming speaker who led the national socialist german workers party to the top
    • gained popularity by bashing TOV, promoting anti-Semitism, anti-communism, and pan-germanism
    • gained support from industrialists, youth
    • after appointment as chancellor, transformed the Weimar republic into third reich -> single party totalitarian state
    • His foreign/domestic policies of strengthening Germany through war and expanding lebenraum -> challenges the TOV and sets up conflicts that ends the interwar period
    • Consolidated power -> used Reichstag fire to blame communist party lead to Recihstag Fire Decree -> repressed communist party and banned from assembly
    • Pushed for enabling act -> gave Hitler full legislative power for 4 years (with some exceptions) and allowed deviation from constitution
    • Enabling Act + Reichstag Fire Decree -> gave Hitler legal dictatorship
    • Hitler fought to counter the ��unjust�� terms of TOV, by secretly expanding military until it was to the point that the Allies could not stop him -> brought the end to the interwar period
  20. Joseph Goebbels
    • German politician and Reich minister of propaganda
    • Hitler��s closest associates and famous for anti-semitism
    • Organized many successive election campaigns for Nazi Germany and organized use of propaganda -> added to the rise in Nazi vote from the Great Depression
    • Rose power in 1933 with Hitler and Nazi Party
    • First actions burned the books -> exerted totalitarian control over media, arts, and information
    • Aided in centralizing Nazi control of all aspects of German cultural and intellectual life -> limited media from non-members of Recih Chamber -
    • Organized attacks on German Jews -> commending boycott of businessmen, doctors and lawyers -> manipulated Hitler to approve of progrom against Jews -> accumulated in the Kristallnacht assault and assault/murder of Jews
    • Resulted in emigration of a great population of jews, desperate to escape
    • Foreign opinions reacted with horror -> end of climate of appeasement from Western powers -> moved Germany significantly closer to WWII
    • Produced anti-semitic films
    • Used modern propaganda techniques -> ideologically prepared German people for aggressive warfare
    • Talented in oratory, using psychological calculation to accumulate Nazi supporters
  21. Francisco Franco
    • Spanish general, leader of the Nationalist military rebellion in the spainish civil war
    • Aided by hitler and Mussolini during the Spanish Civil War against Republican side supported by Russia
    • Set the stage for rehearsal from Hitler and Stalin for tactics used in wwII, especially allowed Hitler��s troops to practice battles before entering WWII -> and also gave Hitler more confidence
    • Added to ideological warfare since it was nationalist vs republicans), battle of Spain became battlefield of contending ideologies -> split the world into fascist and antifascist camps
    • War in Spain brought Germany and Italy together -> Mussolini had feared revival of militant Germany and Italy was estranged from Britain and France. After outbreak of Spanish war -> Mussolini and Hitler came to understanding of Rome-Berlin Axis -> they hoped the world might turn
  22. Karl Marx
    • Prussian philosopher, sociologist and revolutionary socialist
    • writer of the communist manifesto
    • Marxism believed that dialectic of class struggle is how societies progress
    • Believed that capitalism -> leads to socialism -> eventually lead to stateless, classless society of communism (and this was supposedly inevitable)
    • believed that communism was the solution
    • his ideas often quoted by political movements, especially to promote ��end justifies means�� logic to achieve socialism/communism
    • referenced by russia's movement, politburo of russia took parts of the theory and mixed in their own, led to russian revolution/etc -> leading to turmoil of a Stalinist Marxism totalitarian state
    • mussolini also took parts from the manifesto
    • Mao and communist party in China also referenced the communist manifesto as party ideology
  23. Friedrich Engels
    • German-English philosopher, political theorist
    • good friends with marx and they worked together at a journal
    • financially supported marx to allow him time to develop his economic/political theories
    • first draft of communist manifesto produced by engels -> father/co-writer of Marxist theory alongside Karl Marx -> had enormous influence on Marxism and Dialectical Materialism
    • predicted ��inevitable triumph of working class��
    • effects on russian revolution, mussolini's fascist (significance similar to Marx��s)
  24. Sun Yat-sen
    • Chinese revolutionary, first president and founding father of Republic of China (ROC)
    • Founded Tongmenghui to establish republic, distribute land equally amongst people and overthrow old dynasty government -> sponsored uprisings in China
    • Provisional president of China in new Republic of China -> credited for funding revolutions and keeping spirit of revolution alive
    • Leader of the 2nd revolution which tried to overthrow Yuan Shikai but failed
    • Persistent in setting up/resurrecting southern separatist government against Beiyang government ->
    • Set up Chung-guo Guomingdang/ cooperated with Commmunist Party of China and comintern to develop military power needed for Northern expedition -> set up first united front and also allowed communist members into party -> aided to end rule of Yuan Shi Kai????
    • His death led to a power struggle between Chiang and Wang, split Guomingdang -> marking start of Chinese Civil War
    • Gathered the three people��s principle -> democracy, nationalism and livelihood, but with his leadership democracy became theory of benevolent and constructive dictatorship mixed together with Marxism, communism, socialism, planned society, antiforeign, and welfare economics -> turmoil of China��s situation and some ideas is later reflected on Chinese Communists
  25. Chiang Kai-Shek
    • Member of the Guomingdang and close ally of Sun Yat-sen, commandant of military academy
    • Took place of Sung Yat-sen after his death in 1925
    • Led Northern expedition to unify China -> became nominal leader
    • Had no intention of stopping the war on communism -> even to the extent of sacrificing his son
    • His expulsion of soviet advisors and communists from Guomingdang -> led to Chinese civil war before WWII
    • Began the purging of communists -> led to massacres -> White terror in China
    • Tried to encourage nationalism -> which failed due to ineffective central government
    • Often resolved issues of warlord with military force -> costly in terms of materials and men
    • His surrounding of Red Army -> led them to long march -> ultimately led to Mao Zedong being the most influential leader of Communist Party
    • Kidnap of Chiang by Zhang Xueliang (Xi��an incident) -> who requested that he cooperate with Communist party against Japan -> ended the civil war for 2nd united front before the end of the interwar period -> shaped China��s conditions as a country going into WWII
  26. Mao Zedong
    • Chinese communist revolutionist, Marxist philosopher, leader of Chinese revolution
    • Referenced the Russian revolution and Stalinist-Marxism, believed that industrial workers are unable to revolution and thus depended on the peasants -> introduced Marxism to them
    • After large scape purge of communists from Guomingdang -> ended their alliance during the Northern expedition
    • Conducted Autumn harvest uprising -> led revolutionary army of workers and peasants
    • Combined army with Zhu De for Red Army
    • Helped establish Soviet Republic of China -> gained increasing control of soviet areas -> caused campaigns between Guomingdang and Red Army
    • His Red Army��s civil war with Guomingdang -> weakened Chinese forces instead of uniting against Japan
    • Consolidated his power as leader of the Communist party and Red Army over the long march
  27. Puyi
    • The last emperor of China and of the Qing dynasty
    • Abdicated in 1912 as forced by Yuan Shikai -> marked end of dynasty rule in China
    • Set up as puppet emperor of Manchukuo
    • Japanese control of puppet government allowed them to legitimize control of Manchuria through Pu Yi -> such as making Shintoism (Japanese religion) as national religion and signing laws that Japan had prepared
    • Japan��s use of him allowed them to have further legitimate control of Manchuria and control of Southeast Asia -> Manchukuo recognized special rights of Japan in Manchuria,
  28. Yuan Shikai
    • Chinese general and politician
    • Openly opposed to Qing dynasty was relieved of this post when Empress Dowager Cixi��s death, as indicated by some sources, ordered Yuan to be executed
    • Led to Yuan leaving his post, held the loyalty of the Beiyang army, held balance between Sun Yat-sen and Qing court, which both wanted him on their side
    • Became prime minister upon Qing Court��s request in 1911 Wuchang Uprising for Beiyang army��s help, then asked Prince Chun to abstain from power
    • Arranged for the abdication of Puyi and became president -> ended dynasty rule in China, set up Republic China
    • As tensions began to build between Guomingdang and Yuan Shikai (as Guomingdang tried to limit his power) he orchestrated the collapse of the Guomingdang
    • After his military oppression of the second Guomingdang revolution, he reorganized the provincial government giving each provincial governer control of own army -> helped lay the foundations of warlodism that crippled China over next 2 decades
    • Yuan Shikai eventually agreed to the 21 demands of China, (whose commands were toned down by the Western forces) -> caused public ill-will towards Japan, resulted in May 4th movement, and significant upsurge in nationalism -> also caused discontent of Western forces to Japan
    • He tried to rebuild himself as emperor -> faced widespread opposition
    • Significance
    • Trained and organized 1 of China��s first modern armies and introduced modernisationis in law and social ideas
    • Loyalty of Yuan from his armed forces split into warloards after his death -> led to warlord era and undermined authority of central government
    • Did little to improve civilian economic/technological development
    • Weakened Chinese morale and international prestige -> allowed Japanese to gain broad concessions over his government
    • Abandoned his military legacy for imperial goals -> ruled by violence and bribery -> destroyed early Republican movement
  29. Song Jiaoren
    • Third ranking member of Guomingdang,
    • the most influential member -> mobilized mass support for Guomingdang from gentry and merchants to support constitutional parliamentary democracy
    • Assassinated in Shanghai 1913 by Yuang Shikai -> leading to 2nd revolution (which failed) by Sun Yat-sun to overthrow Yuan Shikai��s government
  30. Tongmeng hui
    • Aka Chinese United League, a secret society/underground resistance movement formed by many Chinese revolutionary groups together (by Song Jiaoren and Sun Yat-sen)
    • A group dedicated to overthrow Qing dynasty and set up Republican government in China
    • Helped and fueled the formation of Republic of China
    • Transformed into Guomingdang after ROC was set up
  31. Guomindang
    • Chinese National Party during the interwar period which remains main political party in Taiwan right now
    • Traces back to Tongmenghui
    • Set up after the Xinhai revolution of 1912 -> political party of the new Republican China
  32. CCP/CPC
    • Chinese Communist Party -> founding and ruling political party in PRC right now
    • Founded in 1921 in Shanghai by Comintern
    • Had its origins in May 4th movement
    • Absorbed members purged from Guomingdang by Chiang and expanded, focusing on peasants and power of people -> forced to enter Long March by Guomingdang -> led to Mao becoming most influential leader
  33. Comintern
    • International Communist organization initiated in Moscow during 1919
    • Intended to overthrow international bourgeoisie -> create international soviet republic
    • Helped the establishment of Communist Party of China in 1921 (as a branch of Comintern)
    • Under instruction of Comintern, CPC joined Guomingdang -> first united front in China
    • Encouraged Communists to take power after first united front had failed
    • Sponsored labour unions
  34. Siberia
    • Extending reagion of USSR of northern Asia
    • criminals/ethnic groups sent to siberia prison camps during stalin/lenin reign
    • sentenced to hard labour, travel by foot, most died before reaching destination.
    • leon trotsky was imprisoned in a camp by stalin, then exiled out of the USSR
    • reopened by stalin to to rid of opposition -> instill fear and consolidated Stalin��s power
    • had a large variety of raw materials which was used for industrialization and modernization developments
  35. Reichstag
    • home of German parliament
    • Hitler wanted to establish majority Nazi party in Reichstag = dictatorship
    • fire: supposedly set by communists used to turn public away fr communism, assisted by Nazis
    • create havoc to allow dictatorship: public want security
    • led to suspension of civil liberties for defense against communism
    • ->delegated full Reichstag powers to Hitler, allowed Hitler to push for the enabling act, Reichstag fire decree -> Led to full control of government by Nazi party w/ legal rights
  36. Vienna
    • Capital and largest city of Austria
    • Hitler moved there hoped to attend art academy, become artist
    • rejected by vienna art academy -> didn't find work ->eventually homeless
    • developed his anti-semitism ideas
    • place where hitler developed ideology ->slaughter of Jews
    • poverty in vienna made him unempathetic -> leading to totalitarian rule of Hitler
    • interest in politics and studied techniques: rallies, propaganda -> practiced speeches
    • first exposed to Karl Lueger = anti-semite, had influence on Hitler
  37. Winter Palace
    • official residence of Russian monarchy
    • at the end of monarchy, used by Russian provisional government (kerensky) as government building where the provisional government was set up
    • Oct 25 Bolsheviks took winter palace and arrested provisional gov't heads, defense was low -> seizing of winter palace is pivotal turning point to Bolshevik takeover of Russia (lenin)
  38. Petrograd
    • capital of russia and home of winter palace
    • Lenin first returned here to
    • October revolution took over in this city -> led to Bolsheviks takeover of Russia and end of Kerensky��s provisional government
    • It later became regular city and Moscow became capital because it was too close to German attacks
    • Civil war broke out reds vs. whites
  39. Moscow
    • Later the capital city of USSR , became capital due to German invasion and Petrograd was too close to Germany
    • Stage for which Moscow trials were held for stalin's great purge -> show trials killing most old bolsheviks and who Stalin saw as a threat
    • Red army stationed here
    • Food shortages in Moscow placed heavy demands on Bolsheviks = Moscow CHEKA one of first created
  40. Nanking/Nanjing
    • Originally chosen capital of new Republic of China in 1912 -> which Yuan Shikai decided against to replace Sun as president and exchange for emperor��s abdication
    • 1927 chosen again as capital by Chiang Kai-shek -> marked beginning of Nanjing decade
    • Republic established and Sun��s provisional government set in Nanking
    • City where Guomingdang operated from for the years until the 2nd united front in civil war to eradicate communists
  41. Manchuria
    • Name of the geographic region in northeast Asia -> usually falls entirely within ROC and sometimes divided between China and Russia
    • Under Japanese influence instead of Russia as result of Russo-Japense war in 1904-1905
    • Important region for its rich mineral and coal reserves and soil for barley/soy prediction -> essential source of raw material for Japan pre WWII -> helped Japan carry out their plan of conquest over Southeast Asia
    • Area where the Manchukuo -> puppet government was set up -> allowed Japanese control and further invasion of China
  42. Beijing
    • Current capital city of China and earlier years of Republic China
    • Selected as capital city by Yuan Shi-kai who refused Tianjin -> forced abdication of emperor and became president -> capital remained in Beijing
    • Location of the Marco Polo bridge -> incident which marked Japanese invasion of mainland China and officially the 2nd Sino-Japanese war
  43. Marco Polo Bridge
    • A granite bridge structure in vicinity of Beijing, China
    • A place for the battle between China��s National army and Imperial Japanese army
    • Marked the beginning of the 2nd Sino-japanese war (1937-1945)
    • Opening of Japan��s invasion of mainland China
    • From June, Japanese troops carried out military training near the bridge, Chinese government requested prior notice to prevent local inhabitants from being disturbed
    • Until night of July 7th, night maneuvers carried out w/o prior notice and disturbed local Chinese forces
    • Chinese troops thought they were attacked and fired shots, leading to exchange of fire
    • A Japanese soldier went missing and Japanese government requested permission to look for him in Wanping -> led to dispute -> settled over verbal agreement to ceasefire
    • From incident, Japanese and Chinese violations of ceasefire began to increase
    • Led directly into battle of Beiping-Tianjin and battle of Shanghai
  44. Paris Peace Conference/Treaty of Versailles
    • "diktat"
    • peace treaty signed post-WWI between Germany and the Allies (the 3 main powers were Britain, France and the U.S.)
    • reduced the size of Germany's army and navy, not allowed air force
    • the west of the Rhineland was made into a demilitarised zone (DMZ)
    • 3 vital clauses:
    • "War Guilt Clause": Germany to admit full responsibility for starting the war (Clause 231)
    • Germany responsible for all war damage (reparations to France and Belgium)
    • the League of Nations set up to keep world peace
    • Germany lost all its colonies, its army was limited to 100,000, conscription forbidden
    • China walked out of the conference due to everyone's refusal to have special concessions and extraterritorial rights in China abolished
    • Impact:
    • many historians believe that it contributed to the occurrence of WWII due to clauses intended to punish Germany: the German people's resentment towards the Treaty contributed to the rise of Hitler, who promised revenge and the rebuilding of German pride and military might
    • Italy's failure to gain colonial territory resulted in Mussolini
    • the democrats ruling Germany at the time had overthrown the Kaiser and the war lords so thought they would be treated with moderation from the Allies and that a new democratic Germany would emerge. Since the democrats were the ones to sign the treaty, they bore the "shame" of Versailles
    • the Treaty of Versailles wasn't sufficiently disabling to Germany to destroy its economic and political strength
  45. January 30, 1933
    • Hitler was legally appointed chancellor of Germany (essentially like prime minister)
    • result of the government thinking that Hitler could be used (because of his popularity; appealing to the citizens) and controlled
    • first step in Hitler's establishment of a dictatorship (with the Reichstag Fire Decree that took away many civil liberties)
    • he could now gain power while maintaining a facade of legality, e.g. calling for elections, then having the Parliament building burned down and blaming the Communists to neutralise them as a threat and to suspend freedom of speech and press
    • set the stage for the passing of the Enabling Act and was the beginning of the Nazi revolution
    • showed that people underestimated Hitler's ambitions and ability
  46. Kristallnacht
    • November 9, 1938
    • a retaliation for the killing of a German diplomatic official by a young Polish-Jewish boy
    • Nazi storm troopers vandalised, looted, and smashed Jewish shops, businesses and synagogues, beat up thousands of Jews and rounded up 30,000 to be sent to concentration camps.
    • government levied a billion-mark fine on the Jewish community for provoking the assault
    • shows the severity of the anti-Semitism in Germany, that government officials would openly and violently attack Jews and their establishments
    • also shows the anti-Semitism prevalent in the world, as many countries in Europe (as well as the U.S.) refused to accept Jews attempting to flee the country after Kristallnacht
    • foreshadowed the Holocaust, with both events being state-organized systematic destruction
    • pushed towards end of Western appeasement due to shock and pushed the war forward
  47. Munich Beer Hall Putsch
    • end of 1923: the Brownshirts staged the "beer hall putsch" in Munich, a failed attempt at revolution
    • Hitler was arrested and sentenced to fie years in prison, but was released in less than a year
    • context (why the revolution was attempted): the French army occupied the Ruhr and Hitler and the National Socialists denounced the Weimar government for submission to the French
    • the light treatment of Hitler shows that the Weimar government dealt mildly with its enemies
    • Hitler used his trial as an opportunity to spread his ideas; every word he spoke at the trial was in the newspapers the next day
    • the putsch changed Hitler's outlook on violent revolution to effect change. From then on he thought that, in order to win the German heart, he must do everything by the book,?strictly legal. This was later evident in his efforts to work his way into the government.
  48. Red Terror
    • Russia, during the civil war years (1918-1922)
    • aimed at the extermination of those who opposed the new regime
    • people were killed without trial
    • a bourgeois class background could be enough to condemn someone charged with conspiring against the Soviet state
    • however, working-class background people were shot too, if suspected of opposing the state (such as Fanny Kaplan, who attempted to assassinate Lenin in 1918)
    • showed how the cruelty and violence in Russia differed from the more humane or law-abiding habits of western Europe
    • displayed the Cheka as a formidable political police force
    • it established the new regime of terror and little mercy for any who were perceived to be against the revolution.
  49. Revolution of 1905 (Russia)
    • after 1900, signs of unrest: peasants trespassing on lands of the gentry, rising in small groups against landlords and tax collectors
    • Tsar Nicholas II regarded ideas questioning autocracy as un-Russian
    • failure of the war with Japan contributed to discontent
    • "Bloody Sunday": a crowd of 200,000 peaceful protestors in front of the Winter Palace in January 1905 were shot at by the tsar's troops (ordered by tsar's official in the tsar's absence)
    • tsar issued October Manifesto after a great general strike: it promised a constitution, civil liberties and a Duma to be elected by all classes
    • it divided the opposition: liberals were afraid of revolutionaries, industrialists feared the strength shown by the labour in the general strike, landowners wanted order among the peasants.
    • turned out to be a deception; tsar refused to adhere to the Manifesto once revolutionary pressure was removed
    • shows the failure of the government and monarch to establish a connection and understanding with their people
    • "Bloody Sunday" destroyed the trust the people had in the tsar and they no longer saw him as their friend, but as the force behind hated officials, tax collectors, landlords, etc. --> resulted in a wave of political strikes breaking out
    • shows that the government and monarch underestimated the people and the seriousness of the people's unrest
  50. October Revolution a.k.a. Red October
    • Russia, the Bolsheviks seized power, 1917
    • at first, the Bolsheviks weren't taken seriously, referred to as "crazed fanatics" by Maxim Gorky
    • Lenin concentrated on four points:
    • immediate peace with Central Powers
    • redistribution of land to the peasants
    • transfer of factories, mines and other industrial plants from the capitalists to committees of workers in each plant
    • recognition of the soviets as the supreme power instead of the Provisional Government.
    • troops garrisoned in Petrogad voted to support the soviets, which the Bolsheviks now controlled.
    • Oct. 25��Bolshevik troops take bridges, main telegraph office, post offices, railroad stations, Central Bank, and power stations without a shot being fired
    • Kerensky decides to try to raise a group of loyal troops from the front to put down the uprising��but cannot get a car!
    • Winter Palace is besieged��but not securely
    • Oct. 26��Bolsheviks enter Winter Palace and the provisional government falls
  51. the Bolsheviks broke up the Constituent Assembly after this:
  52. 9 million had voted for the Bolshevik program, but 21 million voted for Kerensky's party (agrarian, populist, peasant-oriented Social Revolutionaries)
  53. the little military and police resistance shows the general discontent of the population and the dissatisfaction with the current government and monarch.
    • established the dictatorship of the proletariat after the breaking up of the Constituent Assembly --> showed that majority rule was abandoned in favour of "class rule"
    • shows the ineptitude of the government in their failure to stop the revolutionaries
  54. Enabling Act
    • passed on March 23, 1933
    • made Hitler dictator for a period of four years
    • Germany became a one party state (all political opposition removed): Communist Party members arrested, Catholic Centre Party withdrew all opposition and Social Democratic Party was dissolved
    • second major step through which Hitler established his dictatorship (after the Reichstag Fire Decree)
    • the government had acquired the authority to pass laws without either parliamentary consent or control. Unprecedentedly, these laws could (with certain exceptions) even deviate from the Constitution
    • it helped Hitler's dictatorship maintain a veneer of legality, as he had it renewed twice, every four years
  55. Triumph of the Will
    • Nazi propaganda film directed by Leni Riefenstahl, well-known film actress
    • film of the 1934 Reichsparteitag (party conference) in Numberg
    • was not popular with a wider audience, shows that openly propagandistic films are not as effective
    • highlights important themes of the Nazi regime, including loyalty, unity, pan-Germanism, deification of the Fuhrer, revolution, etc. through the use of film techniques like angle and lighting
    • shows the use of the arts in indoctrinating the population
    • element of totalitarianism: government influence and propaganda in all mediums, even entertainment
  56. February 12, 1912 (China)
    • the abdication of the last Manchu emperor, Puyi
    • set the stage for the swearing in of the provisional president of the new Republic of China, Yuan Shikai; represented the end of feudalism
    • he, his family and his advisors were allowed to remain in the Forbidden City and maintain the lifestyle of the Imperial Court; shows the lingering respect that the Chinese had for the position of the emperor
  57. May 4th Movement
    • May 4, 1919, massive student demonstrations against the Beijing government and Japan due to a secret deal made accepting Japan's claim to Shandong (made in 1918, made known to the public after the Japanese claim was confirmed at the Paris peace conference)
    • essentially a protest against Western powers as well
    • rekindled cause of republican revolution
    • led to --> October 1919: Sun Yat-sen re-established the Guomindang to counter the Beijing government
    • was the high point of the New Culture Movement, turned the cultural movement into a political one
    • heightened antiforeign consciousness, resentment against the West
  58. New Culture Movement
    • 1917 to 1923
    • political fervour, student activism, intellectual currents catalysed by student protest, and developed into the nation-wide May 4th Movement
    • students returned from abroad advocating social and political theories ranging from Westernization of China to socialism, an orientation towards the future rather than the past
    • disillusionment with traditional Chinese culture; represented a break between tradition and modernity
  59. Northern Expedition
    • military expedition led by the Kuomintang to unify China by ending the rule of local warlords
    • from Blom's ppt: Summer of 1925: Chiang Kai-shek, commander-in-chief of the National Revolution Army, set out on the Northern Expedition against the northern warlords
    • within nine months, half of China had been conquered
    • it ended a period of disorder and started the formation of an effective central government
    • Chiang gained the greatest benefit from the expedition, however, for the victory achieved his personal goal of becoming leader.
    • The Northern Expedition became a point of contention over foreign policy by Joseph Stalin and Leon Trotsky. Stalin followed an opportunist policy and ignored communist ideology; he wanted the CCP to follow the KMT's orders because he thought that the KMT middle and upper classes would defeat the imperialists in China. Trotsky wanted the CCP to complete an orthodox proletarian revolution and opposed the KMT
  60. Long March
    • Retreat by Mao's Red Army and its supporters
    • Communist soldiers, government and party leaders and functionaries (about 100,000 total) set out on a retreat of about 12,500 km through 11 provinces because they were forced to evacuate their camps and homes
  61. Mao gained unchallenged command of the CCP, ousting his rivals and reasserting guerrilla strategy
    • the Long March gave the CCP the isolation it needed, allowing its army to recuperate and rebuild in the north of China
    • lost a great number of the group; only 8,000 survivors of the original group
    • often used for communist propaganda, depicted as a pillar of the Chinese Communist Revolution
  62. Proletariat
    • in Marxist doctrine, a class of people who individually owned no capital and employed no labour; wage worker
    • Marx believed that in the universal class struggle, the workers or proletariat would rise against the bourgeoisie
    • workers and labour unions must be kept in a revolutionary mood and never forget that the employer is their class enemy
    • worker solidarity: it is a betrayal of their class for workers to rise above the proletariat
    • Stalin tried to turn peasants into proletariats through collectivization (pros + cons of this in the "collectization" section)
    • the notion of a universal proletariat uprising was what the Bolsheviks hoped for in Russia; they saw themselves as the model or inspiration for other countries to follow on the path to revolution and communism
    • was not realistic because the working people of Europe weren't in the frame of mind of battle; they didn't view religion or right and justice as nonsense created by the bourgeoisie and they found it difficult to identify with a world proletariat in an endless class struggle
  63. Bourgeoisie
    • preindustrial times: meant "middle classes", between the aristocracy and the labouring poor
    • in Marxism, it's the class of private owners of capital
    • as the bourgeois class develops, it brings about another class, its "dialectical antithesis", the proletariat; the more a country becomes bourgeois, the more it becomes proletarian (the two are inevitably linked)
    • state and religion are outgrowths of bourgeois interests and will disappear when they are abolished
    • Stolypin's reforms and the creation of the kulaks are essentially creating another division of the peasants into proletariat and bourgeoisie, since the kulaks could privately own property - it did in fact create tension between the two classes of peasants
    • evident in the elimination of religion in the Soviet regime that they were trying to get rid of all aspects of society associated with the bourgeoisie
  64. Weimar Republic (1918-1933)
    • the government created in Germany in November 1918
    • the formation of a government from several political parties agreement to a coalition government
    • 1919: a constitution created establishing a Federal republic with an elected president, a chancellor appointed by the president, and a cabinet appointed by the president reflecting the party composition in the Reichstag
    • not truly a parliamentary system: president had the right to dismiss cabinet, dissolve the Reichstag, veto legislation
    • article 48 (emergency clause) gave the president the right to allow the cabinet to govern without the consent of the parliament when deemed necessary for public order
    • contributed to inflation by printing too much money
    • this government's failure to improve Germany's post-WWI economic situation contributed to the rise of Hitler; the people looking for an alternative to an unsuccessful existing government
    • was associated with the Treaty of Versailles, which meant the connection of a democratic government to the acceptance of the treaty --> democracy lost appeal for Germans
    • inflation and the resulting poverty meant the middle class were materially in the position of proletarians, so they lost faith in society and in the old codes of self-reliance in an understandable world
  65. Soviet
    • means "council" in Russian
    • soviets of workers were formed in Moscow and St. Petersburg as a result of "Bloody Sunday"
    • the Petrograd Soviet, or workers' council, led mainly by Mensheviks, declared the general strike that led to the October Manifesto
    • ^ they pressured the Duma committee to set up a Provisional Government and admitted one socialist to the new government, Alexander Kerensky. They also consented to demanding the abdication of Nicholas II.
    • under Lenin's plan, the soviets were to be recognized as the supreme power instead of the Provisional Government
    • by forming and negotiating in soviets, workers could exert more influence over the decisions of their employers/governments
    • reinforced the idea that the good of the whole is greater than the good of the individual and that the whole is more powerful than the individual
    • their influence over the Duma ultimately led to the transformation of Russia into a republic after the abdication of the tsar.
  66. Totalitarianism
    • definition: relating to a system of government that is centralized and dictatorial and requires complete subservience to the state
    • an extreme version of authoritarianism
    • involves the dictator's charismatic "mystique"
    • "permanent revolution": the individual is constantly striving for a goal which ahs been placed just out of reach so society always remains mobilized for continual effort
    • the degree of control is made possible by advancing technology, especially for mass communication, e.g. radio, film
    • resulted from post-WWI disillusionment and economic troubles; people were dissatisfied with democracy and parliamentary government since those things had brought about WWI
  67. deification of the leader, e.g. Hitler or Stalin, meant that the country was always referred to in terms of that person or their party, e.g. the Nazi government instead of the German government
    • the regimes make use of propaganda through different mediums to assert control over the citizens
    • the loss of individuality under totalitarian collectivism
    • everything was done for the good of the state
    • due to technology and mass communications, could have constant surveillance of the citizens' actions; bred atmosphere of distrust and fear
  68. Authoritarianism
    • definition: system of favouring or enforcing strict obedience to authority at the expense of personal freedom
    • tends to lack a guiding ideology
    • prior to the 20th century, authoritarian rule came in the form of absolute monarchies
    • the dictators of the 20th century were authoritarian, but the degree to which they were totalitarian varied
  69. Fascism
    • introduced by Mussolini as Fascismo
    • ideology that aimed to eliminate class antagonisms through control - nationalism and corporatism
    • denounced all other ideologies as evil offspring of liberal and capitalistic society
    • radical in its acceptance of conflict and willingness to employ force when necessary
    • support mainly came from lower middle class whose ambitions had been thwarted by war and subsequent poor economy
    • stressed charismatic, dynamic leadership (leader presented as a messiah figure)
    • right-wing, stressed conservative values, e.g. family
    • Mussolini: the "dictatorship of the state over many classes cooperating"
    • came to be regarded as an alternative to democratic or parliamentary government, especially appealing because of the failure of democracies to prevent WWI
    • nationalistic East European countries found it appealing, and many intellectuals thought that there was a need for discipline and authority after the perceived unsuccessfulness of freedom and individual choice
  70. Communism
    • in Marxism: communism is a further development or "higher stage" of socialism.
    • the communist principle of distribution according to needs is not immediately possible and practical��it is an ultimate goal.
    • before it can be achieved, there must be extremely efficient and plentiful production to satisfy everyone��s needs.
    • also necessary: a change in the attitude of people toward work��instead of working because they have to, people will work because they want to, both out of a sense of responsibility to society and because work satisfies a felt need in their own lives.
    • no country has ever achieved true ideological communism
    • the Soviet union was based on communist ideology: collectivization of farms in an effort to increase food production was a sign of their plan of eventually reaching true communism
    • propaganda was used in order to promote an attitude of willingness to work
  71. Socialism
    • in Marxism: socialism grows directly out of capitalism; it is the first form of the new society.
    • The socialist principle of distribution according to deeds�� that is, for quality and quantity of work performed, is immediately possible and practical.
    • similar to communism:
    • the Soviet union was based on communist ideology: collectivization of farms in an effort to increase food production was a sign of their plan of eventually reaching true communism
    • propaganda was used in order to promote an attitude of willingness to work
  72. Gulag
    • Soviet institution: "Main Administration of Corrective Labour Camps"
    • operated forced labour camps in the Stalin era
    • the combination of violence, extreme climate, hard labour, little food and unsanitary conditions led to high death rates in camps
    • prisoners included criminals and political/religious dissenters
    • Gulag manpower used for Soviet economy; constructed canals, mined, etc.
    • people could be arrested without warning for the Gulag and without a trial, so contributed to the atmosphere of fear and distrust
    • camps had a certain economic goals to fulfill, so eventually police had to fabricate reasons for arresting people in order to fill their arrest quota; shows that the rights of individuals were discarded in favour of the good of the economy and of the state
  73. Purges
    • Germany, June 30, 1934: the Nazi party was purged --> many old Brownshirt leaders who represented the more social revolutionary wing of the movement, were accused of plotting against Hitler and then shot.
    • Russia 1935-1939: the Great Terror, Stalin used the assassination of Sergei Kirov (which Stalin ordered) as an excuse to purge the Communist Party of his opponents (hundreds of party members shot for suspicion of involvement in Kirov's murder)
    • every member of Lenin's Politburo except Stalin and Trotsky were killed or committed suicide to avoid execution
    • terror became on of the principal features of the governments (used to keep people loyal)
    • shows the element of totalitarianism of eliminating any opposition, usually through violent force, by the use of a secret police (Gestapo or Cheka) together with concentration camps in which many were detained without trial or sentence.
  74. National Socialism
    • Hitler's party
    • appealed to German youth; party members generally younger than other political groups
    • main appeal: national recovery, rapid change, personal advancement
    • anti-intellectual, emphasised religiosity (they essentially replaced the Church), ceremony and order (indoctrination, secret ceremony/initiation)
    • idealisation of pastoral past (country living, cultural tradition, old values)
    • conservative (patriotism, family)
    • mob mentality: getting caught up in the hysteria of mass meetings and crowds
    • taking advantage of desires for stability
    • recognised the people's need for ritual, romance and religion, providing this through rituals, symbols, sacraments, messiah figure
    • due to Germany's poor economic conditions post-WWI, many people supported the Nazis not out of genuine belief in the ideology but rather out of hope of improvement in quality of life
    • party membership was generally younger than other political parties; Hitler realised the usefulness of appealing to and indoctrinating youth in order to create a loyal future following
  75. Pravda
    • Bolshevik party paper
    • established legally and openly in St. Petersburg in 1912
    • its open + legal establishment signalled that the Russian empire had been becoming Westernized pre-WWI; tentative freedom of the press
    • served as a vehicle for party propaganda
  76. Kulak
    • Russia
    • the minority of more enterprising and wealthier peasants
    • such "big farmers" stood out from the rest of the much poorer peasants and were resented and envied.
    • resulted from reforms made by Peter Stolypin, which allowed peasants to sell their shares in the communal land of the mirs and acquire private control over land and to buy property from communes or the gentry
    • shows the attempted move towards Westernization, with the owning of private property
    • was a product of the New Economic Policy (1921-1927), which was Lenin's attempt at a compromise with capitalism, shows his willingness to appease the people as well as the fear of an uprising due to the general discontent
  77. Propaganda
    • used by totalitarian regimes for indoctrination
    • emphasised that other ideologies/systems of government were inferior or evil
    • art, literature, film and science were politicised
    • deification of the leader
    • education system provided tool for indoctrination of youth
    • Japan: promoted ideal of samurai loyalty, loyalty to the emperor and Confucian and Shinto ideology
    • education indoctrination guaranteed that future generations would accept authority without question
    • was often incorporated covertly into aspects of life, like films in the cinema in order to subconsciously indoctrinate people; shows a totalitarian regime's attempt at controlling all aspects of life and brainwashing
  78. Five Year Plan
    • Russia
    • Stalin's economic plan, beginning with 1928
    • aimed to make Russia militarily and industrially self-sufficient, lay the groundwork for a true workers' society and overcome the Russian reputation for backwardness
    • the First Five-Year Plan was fulfilled in 1932, and then Second Five-Year Plan lasted until 1937, the Third was interrupted by war with Germany but new ones introduced after 1945
    • First Five-Year Plan:
    • administered by an agency called the Gosplain, to control the flow of resources and workforce which was regulated in capitalist economies by shifts in demand and supply
    • mechanized agriculture though failed to increase rate of food production
    • rapid rate of industrial growth
    • inner Asia was turning industrial for the first time
    • many people sacrificed their lives in gulags in order to provide the labour necessary for building up the capital wealth and economy of the country
  79. Collectivization
    • Russia
    • the creation of collective farms during Stalin's Five-Year Plan (the farms were the property of the peasants)
    • peasants expected to pool their fields and livestock
    • one of the most radical and most resented economic actions of the new Communist regime
    • mechanization of agriculture:
    • before, peasants were too poor to buy tractors and their fields were too small to use one
    • with collectivization, tractor stations and expert agronomists were maintained in each region
    • failed to increase agricultural output
    • denied peasant the freedom to make their own economic decisions, removing their incentive to improve the land they worked, prevented them from passing land on to heirs
    • made industrialization possible: villages needed less labour, so people moved to cities to take jobs in new industries
    • resulted in the liquidation of the kulaks as a class because they resisted surrendering their fields/stock: poor peasants turned on rich ones, many kulaks transported to labour camps
    • resulted in the loss of much livestock; farmers killed their animals rather than give them up
  80. Mein Kampf
    • book written by Hitler while in prison
    • themes: German racial superiority, anti-Semitism, the concept of Lebensraum (territorial expansion to provide "living space" for Germanic peoples), pan-Germanism (union of all Germanic peoples), necessity of another war
    • a woman's role is as a mother and housewife; women weren't considered citizens until marriage
    • "Nazi bible": provided the main basis for Nazi ideology
    • it makes it obvious for anyone to see what Hitler's ultimate goals are, as Churchill had warned about
  81. Cheka
    • Russia
    • "All-Russian Commission for fighting counter-revolution and Sabotage", job was to protect the revolution
    • suppressed opposition to government
    • headquarters at Lubyanka Street in Moscow, which was a prison combined with offices
    • introduced the concept of killing people not for actions, but for who they were
    • contributed to an atmosphere of fear and distrust that wasn't conducive to the formation of any large anti-government resistance group
    • shows that the government was no longer really about the importance of the citizens, but rather, about the importance of the revolution (struck at revolutionists themselves as much as it did the bourgeoisie)
  82. NKVD
    • essentially the Cheka under a different name
    • Stalin's era: renamed it to distance themselves from the previous leader and his association with the secret police
    • same as Cheka
    • served as a way for the rather paranoid Stalin to eliminate anyone he saw as a potential threat
  83. League of Nations
    • set up from a clause in the Treaty of Versailles in order to keep world peace
    • a permanent international body in which all nations, without sacrificing their sovereignty, should meet to discuss and settle disputes, each promising not to resort to war
    • the United States never joined
    • Chinese and Japanese efforts to secure racial equality in the L of N covenant had been rejected, so arguably, Japan had no choice but to use force
    • two possible clauses, one for religious freedom and one to condemn racial discrimination, were discussed but the proposals were abandoned in the end. This shows that even among the League, there was not really complete equality and respect for the practices/cultures of other countries.
    • it was associated with a West European dominance; many people saw it not as a way for maintaining a new status quo in favour of Britain and France
  84. Three Principles for the People
    • was the basis for Sun Yat-sen's political philosophy
    • nationalism, democracy and people's livelihood
    • principle of nationalism: overthrowing the Manchus and ending foreign hegemony over China
    • principle of democracy: popularly elected republican form of government
    • principle of people's livelihood: aimed at helping the common people through regulation of the ownership of the means of production and land; often referred to as socialism
    • spurring the people to revolution, leading to the Republican revolution that broke out on October 10, 1911 in Wuchang (Hubei province) --> 15 of 24 provinces declared independence from the Qing empire
    • his political ideology was a mix of dictatorship, Marxism, socialism, planned society, among other things, which foreshadows the ideas of the Chinese Communists, who would also have a mix of different ideologies
  85. Manchukuo
    • the reconstitution of Manchuria as an "independent" state by the Japanese government with the last Manchu emperor of China, Puyi, as head of the puppet regime of Manchukuo
    • actually controlled by the Kwantung Army
    • Japan exploited its rich resources
    • League of Nations committee recommended that Japan withdraw its troops
    • League of Nations' recommendation led to Japan's withdrawal from it; Japan ceased to put up the facade of diplomatic relations with the West
    • also, League of nations unable to act in the face of Japanese defiance
    • loss of Manchuria and its potential for industrial development and war industries was a blow to the Chinese Nationalist economy
  86. Mao Zedong Thought
    • the tenets of CCP doctrine, formalized from Mao's teachings
    • Marxism-Leninism as interpreted by Mao, distinguished by its theory of guerrilla warfare and its emphasis on the revolutionary potential of the peasantry
    • marked the beginning of Mao's preparation for the establishment of a new China
    • showed the focus on Mao as the representation of the party ideology as a whole - the leader being the visionary, as is common in authoritarian regimes
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Interwar terms edited.txt
2012-05-04 05:13:27

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